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Contents and Abstracts
Angelika Douzougli - John K. Papadopoulos
Liatovouni: A Molossian Cemetery and Settlement in Epirus >>
The Earliest Group of Clazomenean Sarcophagi from Clazomenae >>
Saint Benoît in Galata. The Original Byzantine Building >>
ON THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE
Jorge Maier Allende
The Prehistory and Establishment of the Madrid Department of the German Archaeological Institute >>
Information for Authors
Angelika Douzougli - John K. Papadopoulos, Liatovouni: A Molossian Cemetery and Settlement in Epirus
This paper presents an overview of recent discoveries at Liatovouni, a Molossian site in the valley of Konitsa in Epirus. The cemetery comprises 103 tombs dating from the 13th or 12th century through the late 5th or earlier 4th century BC. Special attention is given to the earliest burial, a well-armed male of the late Mycenaean period. The tombs contained an impressive array of grave goods, including local Early Iron Age matt-painted pottery, numerous imported Late Geometric, Archaic, and Classical vessels, a rich variety of bronze vessels, jewelry, and arms, a panoply of iron weapons, in addition to iron and bimetallic jewelry, and objects of silver, ivory, bone, wood, faience, glass, semi-precious stone, and terracotta. The material displays strong links with central and southern Greece, particularly the region of the Ambrakian and Corinthian Gulfs, Italy, southern Illyria, and the Balkan Peninsula more generally. The paper also includes a preliminary account of the small contemporary settlement (kome) adjacent to the cemetery. Liatovouni, together with Vitsa Zagoriou, provides an important insight into the nature of settlement in Epirus in the period before full-scale urbanization, with far-reaching implications for the rise of urbanism in the region.
Keywords: Epirus - Molossis - Liatovouni - Cemetery - kome ▲
Bilge Hürmüzlü, The Earliest Group of Clazomenean Sarcophagi from Clazomenae
Recent finds from the Clazomenean cemeteries suggest that the chronology of the sarcophagi needs to be refined as the examples from the Akpιnar necropolis produced Late Protocorinthian and Early Corinthian imports as well as Ionian pottery. Also, the earliest usage of terracotta coffins dates to around 630 BC, as attested by the archaeological record. Their shape and decoration schemes differ from the canonical types: among them are examples of the deep rectangular type, the apsidal type, and the type imitating a wooden chest. In this paper the sarcophagi imitating wooden chests and their relative chronology will be discussed. First, grave no. 196 with a Corinthian aryballos can be dated to around 630 BC; second, for an infant burial a rosette bowl confirms the chronology of the late seventh century BC. The latter sarcophagus presents on its front the depiction of a lion hunt. This detail is the key to establish a relationship between the early group of the Clazomenean sarcophagi and so-called »Wild Goat Style«, popular on vessels. The sarcophagus's design, which imitates a rectangular house plan with its lid forming the roof, is important because of the few representations of ekphora scenes known to us. The ekphora scene is depicted on the preserved long side; the procession on the lid contains lots of elements common from Attic vase painting. However, it also has unknown features, which probably recall Ionian tradition.
Keywords: Clazomenae - Necropolis - Clazomenean Sarcophagi - Chronology - Ekphora ▲
Philipp Niewöhner, Saint Benoît in Galata. The Original Byzantine Building
The monastery church of St. Benoît is the hotchpotch of various construction phases and numerous repairs. The last substantial remodelling took place in 1732. An earlier state is documented in the Khalili Portolan Atlas and dates back to 1686/1687, which provides a terminus post quem for the atlas that must have been illustrated within the following ten years before 1697. Until 1686/1687, the church possessed a polygonal apse with synthronon as well as wall mosaics with festival scenes and Greek inscriptions. The bell tower and south-east chapel suvive; a courtyard gateway was demolished in 1958. On the basis of these elements it is possible to reconstruct the original structure in the form of a Byzantine cross-in-square church or a church with a deambulatorium. The edifice could be identical with a Greek Orthodox church of St. Mary attested for 1402, because when the Benedictine abbey was founded in 1427, an older Marian patrocinium appears to have been already in existence. The early, pre-1400 dating of the original Byzantine building is evidence of the progressiveness of the Palaiologan architecture of Constantinople. The corbel table and ceramic ornamentation of the bell tower and courtyard gateway could have originated in the capital and then transmitted to the provinces, where they are attested from the 14th century. This gives rise to the possibility that the Tekfur Sarayι and the Lala Sahin Pasa Türbesi in Mustafa Kemalpasa, which display similar corbel tables and ceramic ornamentation, were also erected before 1400.
Keywords: Istanbul/Constantinople - Palaiologan Architecture - Latins - Modern Era ▲
Jorge Maier Allende, The Prehistory and Establishment of the Madrid Department of the German Archaeological Institute
Various background factors lie behind the founding of the Madrid Department of the German Archaeological Institute. The long tradition of German scholars of antiquity active in Spain, commencing in the second half of the 19th century, was deepened by the presence and the work of the epigrapher Emil Hübner, who was responsible for a closer association with the DAI. After his death, this role was taken over by the ancient historian Adolf Schulten and in particular the prehistorian Hugo Obermaier. They laid the foundations upon which, in the early 20th century, German cultural policy abroad was to be built. Plans for such a policy, in which the DAI was to play a crucial role, were forged after the end of the First World War. It was envisaged that a department of the DAI should be opened in Spain. For various reasons connected with the political circumstances in both Spain and Germany, the project could not go ahead until the year 1943, when Martin Schede, president of the DAI, asked Helmut Schlunk to travel to Spain and establish the dapartment. This proved to be feasible only within certain limits, however, in view of the hostilities and the political constellation; and as a result the department was initially accomodated on the premises of the German Cultural Institute. Study of the available files which were kept in the DAI archives proves unambiguously that scientific considerations were foremost during the founding process, with political intentions always playing a subsidiary role.
Keywords: Cultural Relations - Germany - Spain - Establishment - Madrid Department ▲