Das im Oktober 2002 durchgeführte internationale Kolloquium in Athen widmete sich dem Leben und den Studien von Ludwig Ross (1806-1859), einem Pionier der archäologischen Forschung in Griechenland. Neben den in griechischer und in deutscher Spache gehaltenen Beiträgen enthält der vorliegende Band viele hier erstmals publizierte originale Unterlagen und ein vollständiges Schriftenverzeichnis des Geehrten.
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Hans Rupprecht Goette und Olga Palagia (Hrsg.)
VML Verlag Marie Leidorf, Stellerloh 65, D-32369 Rahden/Westf.
W.- D. Niemeier: Ludwig Ross, pioneer of ancient Greek studies in modern Greece
Ludwig Ross, whose portrait stands in the library of the German Archaeological Institute in Athens since 1908, is best known for his contribution to the study and restoration of the Athenian Acropolis. He reassembled the temple of Athena Nike, and identified such landmarks as the “Persian debris”, the Pre-Parthenon and the Old Propylon. He anticipated by a century and a half the archaeological park encompassing all the major archaeological sites of Athens which only materialized on the occasion of the Athens Olympics in 2004. Ludwig Ross initiated the systematic study of Greek epigraphy and topography, and became the first academic teacher of ancient studies in modern Greece. After his return to Germany, he taught in Halle, where he was chiefly preoccupied with two questions that are yet to be resolved: the extent of Oriental influence on early Greek art, and the historical background of Greek myth. But his fame rests on the pioneering work he produced during the thirteen years he spent in Greece.
U. Kruse: The childhood, adolescence and student years of Ludwig Ross
Ludwig Ross was born on 22 July 1806 as the first son in the family of farmer Colin Ross, originally from Scotland, on the estate of Horst near Bornhöved in what is today Schleswig-Holstein. Ludwig attended the academic schools of Kiel and Plön and proved to be a highly gifted pupil; in spite of much hardship, he acquired through “commendable industry” a comprehensive humanistic education which he went on to deepen further as a widely interested student of classical philology at the Christiana Albertina university in Kiel. Ross then took up employment as a private tutor in Copen¬hagen for two years and shortly afterwards published his first work, GESCHICHTE DER HERZOGTHÜMER SCHLESWIG UND HOLSTEIN BIS AUF DEN REGIERUNGSANTRITT DES OLDENBURGER HAUSES (“History of the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein until the Accession of the House of Oldenburg”). He devoted himself to some final studies prior to travelling to Greece with the classical philologist Gottfried Hermann in Leipzig. Finally, in May 1832, he set off for the south.
I. Minner: “…so Greece for me is a second fatherland” – the experience of Greece in Ludwig Ross’s search for a home in the private and professional sphere
Ludwig Ross’s experience of Greece, which lasted for 13 years, is the experience of a professionally motivated migrant. He came to Greece as a traveller with the intention of returning to Holstein after a one-year stay. However, his appointment as ephoros in the Greek civil service in 1833 prompted him to settle in the country. The need for a home in the sense of an ongoing, active and dynamic process in which a person enters into harmony with the surrounding environment is a basic anthropological need, the fulfilment of which is a fundamental condition of a successful relocation. Our question therefore is: what factors were decisive for Ludwig Ross to make a new home for himself in Greece, and what factors spoke against settling there. In addition to his integration into the professional life in Greece, the community of Germans in Nauplia and Athens, established in 1833, and the relationships he made there, were the essential conditions that allowed him to adopt his environment as a home from home. Greece became Ross’s “second fatherland” where he meant to spend the remainder of his life. However, increasing “anti-Bavarian” feeling, which Ross found to be directed against himself too, and the resultant professional dissatisfaction caused him to doubt whether Greece could in fact remain his home. His doubts were finally answered by the revolutionary events of 1843: with his dismissal from the Greek civil service and the disbanding of the German community, he found that the basis upon which his sense of belonging rested had been removed. His life in Greece ended as it had begun: Ross was a migrant again and found himself obliged to set up home in Prussia.
A. Papageorgiou-Venetas: The unpublished correspondence between Ludwig Ross and Leo von Klenze (1834 to 1854) and the beginnings of Greek archaeology
This contribution focuses on the correspondence between Leo von Klenze and Ludwig Ross, which was conducted primarily during the years Ross lived in Greece and worked as General Ephoros of Antiquities, when his activities were followed with keen interest by von Klenze. The correspondence is rich in factual information and the personal reflections, convictions and intentions of the authors and as such is worth becoming better known as a source of modern Greek historiography. The letters represent a fund of information on the founding years of Greek archaeology and conservation and at the same time offer a highly nuanced picture of these two personalities.
A. Kokkou: Ludwig Ross and Kyriakos Pittakis, two pioneers of Greek archaeology
Ludwig Ross, a German born in territories under Danish occupation, and Kyriakos Pittakis, a Greek born in Athens when it was still under Ottoman occupation, were both employed by the new antiquities service in 1833. Ross’ superior education propelled him to the top, while Pittakis served under him and eventually succeeded him as head of the service. Even though their common goal was the preservation of antiquities, they disagreed in matters of accessibility and publication rights. This conflict came to a head in 1835 with the discovery of the in¬scriptions of naval lists in Piraeus, publication rights of which were ceded by Ross to Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum in Berlin. Pittakis publicly accused him of giving away the rights of the Greeks to their patrimony and Ross eventually resigned from the service in 1836. Their feud continued for two years as the daily press carried acrimonious accusations from both sides. The dispute damaged Pittakis’ reputation and did not endear Ross to the Greeks. But it was symptomatic of the tension between the educated Europeans serving in the top civil service positions of the new nation and the Greek freedom fighters struggling to adjust to the new conditions created after the departure of the occupying Ottoman forces.
M. Kreeb – M. Pantou: Ludwig Ross as director general of antiquities: the early years
Ludwig Ross was appointed director general of antiquities in 1834 and was put in charge of the Athenian Akropolis. His first duty was to clean the rock from the debris left after the de¬parture of the Ottomans in order to make the site accessible. Ancient, medieval and later buil¬dings and fortification walls lay in ruins. Newly discovered documents in the archives of the ministry of culture document Ross’ activities on the Akropolis in 1834 and 1835. The removal of debris produced tons of stones, many of them being recycled ancient blocks. Ludwig Ross sold them at auction so that they could serve as building material for the public and private buildings going up in the new capital of the nation. He used the income to conduct excava¬tions and restorations on the Akropolis. While a large number of ancient blocks are thus irre¬trievably lost, the auction papers preserved in the ministry archives at least document their destination and preserve interesting details about quantities of stone, prices, and the people involved. Blocks from the Akropolis were sold to the contractors of the royal palace (now the Parliament), the mint, the Weiler hospital (now the Akropolis Study Center), the Aphthonides house (now Museum of the History of Athens), the army barracks built inside Hadrian’s Library etc.
T. Tanoulas: Ludwig Ross and the Propylaia of the Athenian Akropolis
Ludwig Ross’ apt observations on the Propylaia are generally confirmed by later discoveries, not least during the ongoing restoration project. Excavations behind the east wall of the south wing and the south wall of the central wing of the Propylaia conducted in 1840 revealed the Mycenaean wall and the southwest corner of the Old Propylon. On the basis of remains then extant and following the neoclassical ideals of his time, Ludwig Ross restored the Old Pro¬pylon as an early variant of Mnesikles’ Propylaia. This model was followed by several generations of scholars until the present restoration project investigated a number of cuttings in the bedrock under the north aisle of the west wing and reached the conclusion that they formed the beddings for the foundations of Mnesikles’ Propylaia. However, Ross’ proposed reconstruction is arguably still valid. Ludwig Ross was also the first to attribute to the west wing of the Propylaia the painted ceiling coffers that he removed from the Ottoman fortification wall between the Monument of Agrippa and the Nike bastion. His suggestion is confirmed by re¬cent investigations. He was also the first to identify the Akropolis monuments described in their medieval state by a fifteenth century traveler known as the Vienna Anonymous. Finally, he discovered the statue base of Athena Hygieia abutting the south side of the central wing of the Propylaia.
A. P. Matthaiou: Ludwig Ross and Attic Inscriptions Between September 1832 and March 1844
Ludwig Ross copied upwards of 550 Greek inscriptions. He published 350, 220 of which came out in his DEMEN VON ATTIKA (1846), while 130 were eventually collected in his ARCHÄOLOGISCHE AUFSÄTZE (1855). His tran¬scriptions of the rest were published by others after his death. He transcribed with care, including vital information on the stone and findspot. His work is invaluable, particularly as re¬gards inscriptions that were since lost. He was particularly interested in inscriptions that con¬tained information on the demes of Attica or helped elucidate topographical problems. His apt identification of a number of demes was confirmed by later research. He collected sculptors’ signatures on statue bases and as a result was the first to identify the sculptor Nesiotes who was hitherto unknown. Further investigation of his unpublished papers will certainly repay study.
C. Habicht: Ludwig Ross the Epigraphist
Soon after his arrival in Greece (1832), Ludwig Ross began to copy ancient inscriptions wherever he found them. He continued to do so in Attica and on his extended journeys as long as he remained in the country, through 1845. As early as 1833 he sent transcripts of Boeotian stones to August Böckh in Berlin, to be included in the CORPUS INSCIPTIONUM GRAECARUM. In 1834 he published the first of three instalments of INSCRIPTIONES GRAECAE INEDITAE. Numerous other publications also contained inscriptions. Epigraphic evidence led him to major discoveries, such as the identification of the sanctuary of Apollo Erethimios on Rhodes and its location on the territory of Ialysos. His most important find, however, were the 4th century naval records of the Athenian navy. Ross spent the winter 1834/35 to produce copies which he sent to Böckh for publication. There were consequences for his career. The quality of Ross’ epigraphic copies was praised by many, but is, for whatever reasons, not in all cases beyond reproach. Even so, they are often all that survives of the actual stones. Ross deserves to be counted among the pioneers of Greek epigraphy.
K. Hallof: Ludwig Ross and the Prussian Academy of Sciences
From 1836 until his death, Ludwig Ross was a corresponding member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin. From 1836 to 1842, he provided the academy’s oldest scientific undertaking, the Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum, directed at the time by August Boeckh, with countless copies of Greek inscriptions of unprecedented quality and utmost reliability, among them the famous “Attic Naval Records”, as well as regular reports on new finds. In 1866, Ross’s widow Emma donated the epigraphic part of his estate, above all thirteen notebooks from the years 1832 to 1844, to the Archive of the Inscriptiones Graecae. The close personal relationship between Emma Ross and the later director of the Greek inscription project, Friedrich Hiller von Gaertringen, allows us to suppose it was he who composed the epigram on Ross’s portrait bust set up in 1908 in the library of the German Archaeological Institute at Athens.
M. Marthari: L. Ross: official documents regarding the protection of antiquities and the creation of museums in the Cyclades
Fourteen official letters written by Ross and his associates when he was in charge of antiquities in the Cyclades from 1834 to 1836, published here for the first time, testify to his activi¬ties in the area. The letters are preserved in the archives of the museums of Syros and Myko¬nos. Ross ran an organized antiquities service the like of which was not seen again until the 20th century. In his capacity as regional ephor and later as head of the antiquities service, Ross sailed to the islands in summer 1835 and published his scholarly observations in REISEN AUF DEN GRIECHISCHEN INSELN DES ÄGÄISCHEN MEERES I (1840). Even more important is his contribution to the removal of sculptures and inscriptions to the safety of local museums that he helped create on Syros and Tenos, the preservation of archaeological sites and the struggle against the illicit antiquities trade.
K. Sporn: Ludwig Ross on the Cyclades
Whereas Ludwig Ross’s work on the Acropolis of Athens is very well known in archaeological research, there has been less reception of the findings he made on his travels around the Cyclades. The travels took place in the early years of the Kingdom of Greece, starting in 1834 and lasting into 1844, thus not only during his time as General Ephoros of Antiquities but also later when Ross was still living in Greece and working as professor of Classical Archaeology at the University of Athens. His reports surpass those of earlier travellers by virtue of their extraordinary precision in observation and description; over later travellers he had the advantage of having seen many antiquities before they were destroyed by the rapid advance of urban development. For readers today the travelogues present an immense fun¬d of observations on local history, topography and on various special questions. In this contribution, Ross’s travels are reconstructed and their significance for the exploration of the Cyclades is explained with the help of selected examples.
I. Trianti: Ludwig Ross and the sculptures of the Cyclades
Ludwig Ross traveled widely in the Cyclades while in charge of the antiquities service in 1835 and 1836, and again in his capacity as university professor in 1837 and 1841. He pub¬lished his observations in epistolary form in three volumes, REISEN AUF DEN GRIECHISCHEN INSELN DES ÄGÄISCHEN MEERES from 1840 to 1845. He collected a number of sculptures, occasionally buying them from private hands, and housed them in the ›Theseion‹ which he established as the first National Museum of Athens. His letters provide invaluable information on their provenance, especially as regards four unfinished marble sculptures that were origi¬nally collected by Governor Kapodistrias for the Aigina Museum. They were long thought to come from Rheneia, but Ross’ remarks suggest a provenance from Delos. His letters also suggest that a horse fragment in the Paros Museum was found in the local Asklepieion and confirm that the kouros of Thera was removed to Athens along with his right lower leg which was eventually recovered in the storerooms of the Athens National Museum. Finally, the male torso from Melos that was in Schaubert’s collection in Ross’ time can now be identified with a torso of Hermes Andros/Farnese in the Athens National Museum.
G. Kokkorou-Alevra: Ludwig Ross and the antiquities of Kos
Ludwig Ross was the first scholar to visit Kos in the 19th century. In the course of three visits to the island (1841, 1843, 1844), he described and identified, nearly always rightly, over thirty ancient and medieval sites. In addition, he was the first to publish the spring of Bourinna, the Tomb of Charmylos and four slabs from the altar of Dionysos. He transcribed and edited 57 inscriptions (some of which are now lost) and collected all the ancient sources on the island. His method of identifying monuments on the basis of epigraphical and philological evidence is basically sound and proved very fruitful. In sum, Ross’ contribution to the archaeology, epigraphy and topography of Kos is extremely valuable, even though some of his conclusions are no longer tenable.
F. Pajor: Ludwig Ross’s observations on Euboea in comparison with contemporaneous accounts
When Euboea passed by treaty from the Ottoman Empire to the newly founded Kingdom of Greece in 1833, the first ten years, i.e. until the September Revolution of 1843, witnessed the comprehensive surveying of the island. The government’s objective was not only a profound knowledge of ancient Greece: it was also striving to bring about the economic revival of the country. Ludwig Ross contributed significantly to the knowledge of what was then Greece’s largest island by means of the archaeological, historical, as well as folkloric and economic observations he made during his visits to the island in 1841 and 1844 in the company of King Otto I and Queen Amalie; these were published in 1848 under the title REISEN DES KÖNIGS OTTO UND DER KÖNIGIN AMALIE IN GRIECHENLAND (‘Travels of King Otto and Queen Amalie in Greece’). In this contribution, Ross’s notes on Euboea are compared with contemporaneous reports by the historian Jean-Alexandre Buchon, the geologist Karl Gu¬stav Fielder and the philologist Heinrich Nicolaus Ulrichs. The comparison reveals that Ross’s publication is valuable in the study not only of antiquity, but also of the cultural history of Euboea in the late Middle Ages and modern era, which is still too little regarded.
H. R. Goette: Ludwig Ross in Attica and on Aegina
Using several examples – Sounion, Porto Raphti, Brauron, Rhamnous, Vari, Panakton and Eleutherai and the island of Aegina – this contribution examines the method Ross followed when conducting site investigations and evaluating findings. Detailed observations at the ancient sites, a good knowledge of ancient literature and the intensive collection of – often newly discovered – epigraphic material were the basis upon which Ross drew his conclusions, many of which still valid today (though often forgotten), while some others are logically consistent misinterpretations. Presented here are examples of his exhaustive explorations, his often very short and succinct accounts of them, and some drawings in Ross’s hand, among them a map of Attica with an inscription on his travels in the region.
A. Moustaka: Ludwig Ross in the Peloponnese
Ross’ interest in the Peloponnese began with his residence in Nauplion, first capital of Otto’s Greece, in 1832, and continued intermittently throughout his career. His first appointment in the antiquities service was as ephor of the Peloponnese, where he traveled extensively in 1833 - 1834. He returned to the area in 1836, 1840 and 1841, acting as tour guide to the royal cou¬ple. His observations were published in REISEN IM PELOPONNES (1841) and DIE REISEN DES KÖNIGS OTTO UND DER KÖNIGIN AMALIA IN GRIECHENLAND I - II (1848). He also published inscriptions from the Peloponnese in INSCRIPTIONES GRAECAE INEDITAE I, printed in Nauplion in 1834. A second volume was possibly published in Nauplion, too, but is now lost. During his expeditions, Ross collected sculptures which either formed the core of local museums or were sent on to the ›Theseion‹ which housed the first National Museum of Athens. He also conducted small-scale excavations. Ross championed the idea of large-scale excavations at Olympia but was unable to drum up enough support for the project, which was eventually undertaken by the Berlin Museum and the German Archaeological Institute after his death.
K. Fittschen: Greece and the Orient – Ludwig Ross versus Karl Otfried Müller
The article deals with the controversy, which took place during the first half of the 19th century about the influence of the ›Orient‹ upon the origin of Greek culture. When it had been demonstrated by scrutiny of the ancient sources (›Quellenkritik‹) that the ancient traditions about early Greek history were not tenable, the idea of a nearly independent (autochtonous) birth of Greek culture became predominant. Against this new doctrine Ludwig Ross tried to show from 1841 until the end of his life, in an increasingly engaged form and an often very polemic tone, that the ›Orient‹ was indeed the cradle (»Wiege«) of Greek culture. The arguments advanced by Ross for this view, differing in quality and conclusiveness, and the possible motives for the harshness of his argumentation are discussed in this paper. The great archaeological excavations, starting in Greece only in the seventies of the 19th century, have confirmed neither the views of Ross nor of his adversaries. Nevertheless has the same question been renewed some years ago, with nearly identical arguments and the same intention, by Martin Bernal, but who ignored his predecessor completely.
O. Palagia: Ludwig Ross, first professor of archaeology in the University of Athens (1837 - 1843)
King Otto of Greece founded Athens University in April 1837. Ludwig Ross was appointed to the Chair of Archaeology by royal decree and soon afterwards elected to the University Senate. He gave his inaugural lecture on ARISTOPHANES, KNIGHTS AND ACHARNIANS on 10 May, and henceforth taught regular classes on a wide range of topics, such as Greek epi¬graphy, topography, ancient art history, Spartan history and archaeology, Ovid, Plautus, and Pliny. In his academic capacity he published a pamphlet on the archaeology of the island of Sikinos (1837) and a handbook on the history of Greek art (1841). The value of these pionee¬ring works as scholarly publications in modern Greek cannot be overestimated. Ross, who was trained as a classical scholar, combines knowledge of the ancient sources with first-hand acquaintance of antiquities, several of which had been brought to light in his own excavations. His contribution is no less important for his superb use of Greek, recently reinvented for the new Greek nation, for the scholarly publication of archaeological investigation, also a new field at the time. During tenure of the Chair, Ludwig Ross traveled widely to the islands of the Aegean and the west coast of Asia Minor, describing his observations on largely unknown ancient sites not only in the Sikinos pamphlet but also in REISEN AUF DEN GRIECHISCHEN INSELN DES ÄGÄISCHEN MEERES II (1843) III (1845).
A. Furtwängler: Ludwig Ross in Halle – aspects of his ordeal
When Friedrich August Wolf left for Berlin in 1807, archaeological studies were suspended at the University of Halle. In 1843 an application was made for an exceptional allocation of funds for a chair in archaeology which Ludwig Ross was expected to occupy; at the same time King Friedrich Wilhelm granted him two years’ paid leave in order that he could continue or finish off the expeditions he had begun (particularly in Asia Minor). In 1845 Ross moved to Halle with the aim of long-term residence, but having been away from Germany for a long time he was unfamiliar with the scientific climate and felt alienated by the general approach to the philological tasks at hand. It was planned that Ludwig Ross should also assume direction of the University’s museum of antiquities which was to be established. He was energetically committed to the museum, but his visions for it, fervently propounded and in line with his adamant scientific view that the antiquities of the Orient, Egypt, Greece and of the Italic peoples should receive equal scientific attention were thwarted by the categorical position of the ministry. Circumscribed by the realities of Halle and already suffering from illness, Ross advocated curious and militant theses with great vehemence, which led to his isolation. The state of his health significantly worsened; by 1850 teaching had already come to demand enormous effort from him and his physical mobility was soon very severely impeded. From 1854 onwards Ross was confined to bed and wheelchair and no longer able to deliver lectures. His last four years must have been very much marred by pain and disappointments for him to have taken his own life on 6 August 1859.
B. Seewald: Ludwig Ross – the archaeologist as journalist
This contribution shows Ludwig Ross as the Greece correspondent for the Allgemeine Zeitung. Since the Augsburg-based newspaper published by Georg Cotta was an opinion-forming organ whose articles animated rulers and diplomats throughout Europe, a bitter struggle was constantly waged over the political colour of its reporting. In order to be able to influence the daily reading of King Ludwig I or King Otto, politicians did not shrink from reckless intrigue. An account of Ross’s role in this game can be given on the basis of newly discovered sources from the literary estates of Cotta and members of the Regency in which his position on the state-building work of the Regency, Greek nationalism and on the developing profession of journalism may be discerned.
H. Löhr – J. Zander: The literary estate of Ludwig Ross in Kiel – provenance and inventory of the estate in the Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel
A major part of the literary estate of the archaeologist Ludwig Ross is kept in the Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel (SHLB Kiel). Formerly this substantial estate - comprising letters, manuscripts and documents - was housed in the Archaeological Museum at the Univer¬sity of Halle. The Kiel inventory has now been fully catalogued. However, parts were published at an earlier date with the origin being stated as Halle. In order to prevent any confusion arising from this and to provide an overview of the inventory, this contribution describes the sometimes complex path the estate has taken. As far as possible it includes the things that come from the personal property of Ludwig Ross. This is followed by a register that lists in full the papers kept in the SHLB Kiel, and the whereabouts of the remainder of Ross’s estate (manuscripts, portraits, his collection of antiquities, etc.) are indicated in the notes.