Oinoanda Report 2009

  Detail of the stone plan with a section of the barrier wall and adjacent areas to the west © DAI The point cloud model of the Esplanade from 2008 with the structural complexes recorded in 2009 © DAI
The main focus of the campaign in 2009 (15 July - 15 Aug.) was the documenting of building structures around the Esplanade. In addition to this, the three-dimensional documentation of fragments of the inscription of Diogenes of Oinoanda was successfully continued. The process of plotting the fragments of this unique philosophical inscription, which lie scattered across almost the entire urban area, was concluded. As a result, almost all the fragments of the inscription of Diogenes which are to be found in the complex topography of the city have now been precisely plotted with GPS coordinates. The epigraphic research programme also included investigation of the non-philosophical inscriptions of Oinoanda. In both fields spectacular new finds came to light, once again underscoring the particular epigraphic potential of the site. Geophysical prospection is being carried out at Oinoanda with the specific aim of researching the development of the city. Interest centres on the little-known Hellenistic city. Furthermore, documentation work was conducted on the water supply system at Oinoanda and its imperial-era aqueduct, a remarkable edifice in terms of the history of technology.

4 The ruins of the Vespasian-era baths from the south-west © DAI3 Detail of the point cloud model of the Esplanade with the geophysical results superimposed © DAIThe detailed structural record of the vast Hellenistic Esplanade and the buildings surrounding it was completed in 2009. The area in question measures almost 25,000 m2 and it was comprehensively documented by hand on the basis of the three-dimensional point cloud model produced the previous year (Fig. 1). The structural record comprises the Doric Pseudoperipteral building in the north-west corner and, proceeding clockwise from it, the North Stoa, which was severely disturbed by later installations; the public building in the north-east corner corresponding to the Doric building; the smaller-roomed building at the eastern point of entry to the Esplanade; the late classical Portico with its architectural remains, extending across the entire southern flank of the central space; and finally the massive defensive wall blocking off the Esplanade from the city (Fig. 2). Also included in the structural record was the adjacent area beyond the barrier wall with large areas of collapse debris and with the east wall of the Antonine baths. Close evaluation of the finished stone plan will allow a clearer identification of the sequence of construction on the Esplanade. In order to find out more about the construction history of this remarkable central area of the city and its Hellenistic origins, the geophysical prospection which last year was conducted on a trial basis was extended to cover the entire area of the Esplanade (Fig. 3). It turned out that the Esplanade space itself with its architectural structures is revealed much more clearly in the geophysical results than the subterranean remains of the surrounding architecture. All the same, it proved possible to document the building structure of the South Portico in areas not formerly known. Some of the anomalies may be attributable to the vestiges of earlier buildings; this would be highly significant for an understanding of the original appearance of the Hellenistic Esplanade.

6 One of two fragments of Diogenes' inscription lost since 1895 and recovered in 2009 (YF 229) © DAI5 The heavily worked rock formation south-west of the Esplanade © DAIIn order to clarify how the Esplanade architecture was integrated into the city as a whole, the area being documented by means of terrestrial laser scanner was widened to include peripheral areas. This meant primarily the adjacent area west of the barrier wall, where the older bath complex from the period of Vespasian was also scanned three-dimensionally by laser (Fig. 4). The resultant point cloud model will serve as the basis for an exact and detailed structural record. For the same purpose we scanned a rock formation resembling a hillock south-west of the Esplanade, whose location in the urban topography and whose traces of building work indicate that it served an important function in the ancient city, although the degree of destruction precludes any concrete interpretation at the present time (Fig. 5). Finally the Byzantine church south-west of the Esplanade, for whose monumental design architectural members from the North Stoa were reused, was also documented by laser scanner.

A central task of the work on the inscription of Diogenes of Oinoanda was the localisation of known fragments not yet plotted with GPS coordinates. Last year, the over 30 new fragments discovered in 2007 and 2008 were plotted and in addition 130 of the over 220 pieces published before 2007 were located and plotted. Of the remaining fragments nearly 40 are buried or were reburied after the excavations of 1997. A further 27 fragments discovered in the 19th century could not be relocated by the British survey of the 20th century. Yet it also proved difficult to relocate the other fragments observed during the British survey in the 20th century because the mapping was conducted in 2008 in the course of thorough field-walking on the site. Nevertheless, 15 more fragments from the British survey were rediscovered thanks to systematic evaluation of the results of previous research and to the use of GPS. Remarkably, the field-walking also led to the rediscovery of two fragments which were first found by the French expedition (G. Cousin and Ch. Diehl) of 1885 and were re-sighted by the Austrian expedition (R. Heberdey and E. Kalinka) in 1895 but were never seen again since then (Fig. 6). And finally a series of new finds were made, which was scarcely to be reckoned with after the successes of the previous year's campaign (Fig. 7). Among these 15 fragments from the Diogenes Stoa, complete inscription blocks were once more to be found. One of these blocks fits the longest coherent sequence of text, extending the inscription of Diogenes now to nearly 16 columns. In terms of content, the most significant new find allows the completion of a maxim of Diogenes only partly visible last year and containing highly unconventional reflections on the sorrows of love. The number of new Diogenes fragments found since the start of the project in 2007 has thus risen to 50.

8 One of the piers of the aqueduct in the distorted structural record © DAI7 One of the new fragments of Diogenes' inscription discovered in 2009 © DAIWhile it was possible to conclude the work connected with plotting the fragments of Diogenes' inscription, the three-dimensional documentation of the fragments by means of laser line scanner is still far from being finished. Still, more than 40 fragments were scanned, added to the 30 from the previous year.

The 2009 campaign proved to be very productive also in terms of non-philosophical inscriptions, which contribute greatly to the epigraphic significance of Oinoanda. Among the finds were several tomb inscriptions, one small rock relief dedicated to Poseidon, and a statue base whose inscription refers to the goddess Nemesis in a remarkable form of language not easy to interpret.

Oinoanda's water supply and distribution system was investigated thoroughly by E. C. Stanton and J. Coulton and placed in context with the city's bath complexes (see bibliography). Yet some questions remained open, relating to the architectural form of the unusual aqueduct of Oinoanda and to the technical features of the water supply system. Therefore documentation work was commenced on the structural remains still standing today (Fig. 8). In addition, a detailed surface survey was carried out along the course of the aqueduct from its source, which lies some 3.5 km (linear distance) to the south of the urban area (Fig. 9). About 500m from the source, two different parallel channels can be made out with a difference in elevation of about 5m. This observation is consistent10 The course of the aqueduct across the terrain © DAI9 The hilltop site of Oinoanda seen from the water source for the aqueduct © DAI with the already established multi-phase utilisation of the aqueduct and could be the result of a natural change in the place where the water issued from the limestone massif. GPS coordinates were taken in order to map the course of the two channels and the location of the spring (Fig. 10); this mapping work will be continued next year in order to determine the exact route of the aqueduct and the various phases of construction.


Involved in the project

Terrestrial laser scanning of the Esplanade and surrounding areas
Ertan Ilter,Vildan Inan (Ankara)

Structural record of the Esplanade
Eric Laufer (Universität zu Köln), Dorothea Roos (Universität Karlsruhe), Niko Koch (Universität Karlsruhe), Ozan Ayaz (Akdeniz Üniversitesi Antalya), Annika Zeitler (FH Regensburg), Ulrike Herrmann (TU Wien)

Geophysical prospection on the Esplanade
Christina Klein, Karolin Dünnbier, Martin Proksch

Recording of fragments of Diogenes' inscription
Jürgen Hammerstaedt, Matylda Obryk, In Yong Song, Oliver Thiessen, Anke Rasselnberg (Universität zu Köln), Martin Ferguson Smith, Konrad Berner (Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Karlsruhe)

Laser line scanning of the Diogenes fragments
Konrad Berner, Benjamin Fischer und Matthias Güldenpfennig (alle Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Karlsruhe)
Epigraphic survey 
Nicholas Milner (BIAA), Veli Köse (Hacettepe Üniversitesi Ankara), Gregor Staab (Universität zu Köln), Matylda Obryk (Universität zu Köln)

Aquaeduct and water supply
Konrad Berner (Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Karlsruhe), Martin Bachmann


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