Metanavigation

Dra' Abu el-Naga/Western Thebes

Dra' Abu el-Naga/Western Thebes: An archaeological investigation of a residence necropolis in Upper Egypt (Luxor).

The investigation of the necropoleis dating to the Middle Kingdom, Second Intermediate Period and Early New Kingdom. The discovery and documentation of royal tomb complexes dating to the 17th and early 18th dynasty.

Location

Location

Germany
25° 44' 4.0452" N, 32° 37' 11.0928" E

fig. 1 © DAIThe excavation site is situated ca. 700 km south of Cairo, opposite the modern city of Luxor in Upper Egypt on the western side of the Nile. Dra' Abu el-Naga is the modern name of the northern area of the extended necropolis, which served as the burial ground for the ancient Egyptian capital of Thebes (Waset). The name relates to both the modern village and the area, which lies to the north of the village and which has, for the most part, remained untouched by modern occupation. The concession area of the venture lies in this undeveloped part of the necropolis (fig. 1. and 2.).

Background

The excavation is carried out in sections of varying size (i.e. depending on the individual situation of the area or object to be examined) or in terraces as necessitated by the slope of the debris from the necropolis. The excavated finds were surveyed using a Total Station, documented with photographs, and for the most part recorded in sketches. The surveying of the individual finds is also carried out with the Total Station. An AutoCAD-based digital system was used to document not only the tomb complexes (fig. 3), but the topography of the excavation terrain as well. A virtual 3D animation of the tombs (created by Dipl.-Ing. Manja Maschke, Dresden) illustrates the positions of the shafts and chambers, some of which are tangential to each other, and attempts a reconstruction of the pyramid complex (fig. 18). The anthropological and palaeopathological examination of the mummies or bone material was carried out by Prof. Dr. Andreas Nerlich and PD Dr. Albert Zink (→ Cooperation); the botanical remains were analyzed by Drs. Reinder Neef.

History

Fig. 2: Aerial photograph of Dra' Abu el-Naga with the remains of the pyramid (lower centre) © DAIDra' Abu el-Naga is one of the longest occupied necropoleis of Ancient Egypt: it was used as a burial place almost continuously between the Middle Kingdom and the early Christian (Coptic) periods, i.e. a period of ca. 2500 years. The oldest graves documented so far date to the end of the 11th dynasty (ca. 2000 B.C.). During the 17th and early 18th dynasty, kings and their wives were interred here. The social spectrum of the private necropolis ranges from simple burials with few grave goods to the burials of higher-ranking individuals e.g. the High Priests of Amun of Karnak and other high officials. In the early Middle Kingdom, at the end of the Second Intermediate Period and at the beginning of the New Kingdom Dra' Abu el-Naga was the site of the residence cemetery, as Thebes/Waset had at this time become the imperial capital and seat of government. Dra' Abu el-Naga's significance as a holy burial ground, which increased with the presence of the royal tomb complexes, resulted primarily from its position directly opposite the Temple of Karnak: The Temple of Karnak is known to have been the main cult centre of Amun from the Middle Kingdom and then became one of Ancient Egypt's most important temples during the New Kingdom.

Fig. 3: Manja Maschke surveying a shaft complex © DAIOn the hilltop of Dra' Abu el-Naga stand the substantial remains of the Coptic monastery, Deir el-Bachit and its adjacent cemetery, both of which are located within the concession area of the German Institute of Archaeology, Cairo and had not been investigated until recently. Deir el-Bachit was inhabited by monks between the 5th and 8th century A.D. and was presumably the largest Coptic monastery complex in Western Thebes. The archaeological investigation of this complex began in 2001 in cooperation with the Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich (from 2003 as a DFG-Project) (→ cooperation).

Objectives

Fig. 4: Dra' Abu el-Naga North, overview of Area A © DAIThe excavation project, which was initiated in 1991, is dedicated to the study of the royal and private necropoleis dating to the Second Intermediate Period and early New Kingdom (13th ­ 18th dynasty, ca. 1790-1425 B.C.) as, up until recently, little was known about the architecture and composition of graves and funerary practices of this time. One particular focus of the excavation was the royal tomb complexes of the 17th dynasty. Previous to the DAIK's (German Institute of Archaeology, Cairo) project, the general knowledge of these tombs was based on individual objects, which were part of their funerary equipment, but which lacked any definite provenience (e.g. two gilded wooden coffins and a limestone pyramidion). Such objects were stolen from their tombs during the 19th century and then gradually found their way into the art trade and finally into various European collections. The burial complexes themselves and their exact location remained undocumented. Consequently one main objective was the localisation of these tombs, the recording of their architecture and the reconstruction of the original context of the objects, which formed part of their burial equipment.

Fig. 5: Area A: remains of a tomb superstructure made of unfired mud bricks © DAIThe overlying aim of the research project is the reconstruction of the occupation and development history of the necropolis of Dra' Abu el-Naga. The archaeological excavation is based on the following questions: Firstly the clarification of the form and architecture, above all of the Second Intermediate graves, is a particular desideratum. The analysis and evaluation of the architectural features along with the recovered burial equipment and ritual objects aim to enable conclusions about contemporary ritual and burial practices. Furthermore the incorporation of the individual complexes or rather groups of graves into the necropolis structure as a whole, i.e. processional ways, ritual sites, sites of religious importance, will also form part of the investigation: Were the various tomb complexes interrelated? What was the motivation behind the arrangement of particular graves and the dispersion of specific tomb forms? One further emphasis lies on the understanding of the social spectrum and social distribution pattern of the burials.

History of Research

Fig. 6: Area A: Limestone stela belonging to a "singer of Amun" © DAITo date, a coherent, extensive investigation of the Dra' Abu el-Naga necropolis does not exist. Such an investigation has been hindered by the fact that large sections of the area are covered by an enormous amount of rubble, mainly as a result of the lengthy occupation period of this burial site (i.e. excavated material from the shafts), but also due to extensive tomb robbery throughout the early 19th century (fuelled by the ever increasing interest of European museums and private collectors for Egyptian antiquities) and the diverse, more or less systematic archaeological excavations of the 19th and 20th century. Individual scenes from decorated graves, which are situated in the necropolis and date to the New Kingdom, were documented and published in 1845 during the course of the expedition led by Carl Richard Lepsius. The first significant and to some extent documented excavations were undertaken by Joseph Passalacqua between 1822 and 1825 and concentrated on a number of shaft graves. Particular interest in Dra' Abu el-Naga came as a result of the discovery of three royal coffins of the Second Intermediate Period, one of which belonged to Nub-Kheper-Re-Intef, which had been found by grave robbers in 1827 and then bought by the British Museum, London in 1835. In the years 1860 to 1862 Auguste Mariette initiated the apparently successful search of the tomb of this king. Mariette however did not document the location of the tomb and only an extremely cursive short description exists today. At the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century a number of ventures were undertaken in Dra' Abu el-Naga, during the course of which individual graves and grave clusters were excavated and their decoration documented (e.g. Northampton/Spiegelberg/Newberry, 1898/99; H. Gauthier, 1906; Carter/Carnarvon, 1908; W.M.F. Petrie, 1909). Interest in the site of Dra' Abu el-Naga has persevered until the present day and has lead to a range of excavation projects undertaken during the last few years, which focus on specific graves.

Previous Activities

Area A (Dra' Abu el-Naga North):

Fig. 7: Area G: Interior of the tomb complex K95.1 © DAI

Private necropolis of the early 18th dynasty From 1991 to 1994 extensive excavations were carried out in the northern part of Dra' Abu el-Naga. During the course of these excavations around 20 shaft tomb complexes were uncovered. The shaft complexes are between 5 and 7 m deep and have, as a rule, two chambers on the shaft floor, which branch off to the east and west. Remains of grave superstructures built of unfired mud bricks could be assigned to several of these shafts, where funerary rituals were performed (fig. 4. and 5.). To date only a few cases of this type of grave superstructure, which date to the early New Kingdom, have been documented. In accordance with confirmed archaeological features these superstructures could represent a typical place of installation for New Kingdom stela (fig. 6.). A number of shafts were used for secondary burials during the Third Intermediate and Late Period (21st to 26th dynasty, ca. 1050-600 B.C.). The majority were greatly damaged: on the one hand by plundering and on the other hand due to water damage as a result of irregularly occurring heavy rainfall. In the western part of the area two almost untouched burials were discovered, which contained informative burial equipment. In addition highly interesting finds were documented in the subterranean chambers, which were used in connection with specific ritual practices (e.g. the so-called "Breaking of the Red Jars "). Several of these finds have already been published (→literature) and a monographic joint publication is currently in preparation.

Area G: The saff-tomb K95.1

Fig. 8: Area G: A so-called 'magic knife' (apotropaion) from a shaft complex dating to the 17th dynasty © DAI

The Arabic word saff means 'row' and refers to the pillars, which characterize this type of rock-cut tomb. The complex K95.1 was discovered in 1995 and is located on the plain of Dra' Abu el-Naga, in the southern area of the concession. As a result of heavy rainfall during the winter season of 1994/1995, which damaged the corridor of this tomb, excavations in 1996 and 1997 were undertaken both in the tomb's interior (fig. 7.) as well as in the surrounding area of the complex. Based on an analysis of ceramic finds, the saff-tomb itself was constructed at the end of the 11th dynasty (ca. 2000 B.C.). In the 17th and 18th dynasty two vertical tomb shafts of ca. 6 m in depth were dug into the rock to the west of the pillared hall. The funerary equipment of these shafts had been greatly plundered. In the more southern of the two shafts a so-called "apotropaion" was discovered, an ivory knife-shaped object, which aided the deceased's symbolic rebirth (fig. 8.). The excavation of the complex K95.1 awaits completion.

Area E: The complex K93.11

Fig. 9: Ground plan of the tomb complex K93.11 © DAI

The rock-cut tomb complex K93.11, which lies beneath the hilltop of Dra' Abu el-Naga, was excavated and documented from 1993 to 2000. K93.11 is the northern tomb of a large double tomb complex, which had two forecourts, positioned in front (fig. 11) and was bounded to the east by an enormous, ca. 8 m high terrace wall. Excavation of the southern tomb complex K93.12 was begun in October 2006. In view of the fact that the ground plan of the tomb's interior (a four-pillared room with a central shaft 10 m in depth, fig. 12) differs greatly from the ground plan of private rock-cut tombs, along with its enormous proportions, it is beyond doubt that K93.11 is a royal tomb dating to the early New Kingdom. It is very likely that the complexes K93.11 and K93.12 can be attributed to king Amenophis I. and his mother Ahmes-Nefertari. The most recent excavations have yielded further evidence to support this hypothesis. Ceramic finds dating to the early and middle 18th dynasty, which were discovered in the lowest levels of the forecourt fill, confirm the date of when the rock-cut tomb was constructed, i.e. at the beginning of the New Kingdom. During the reign of Ramses VI, almost 400 years later, the royal tomb complex was reused by the High Priest of Amun, Ramsesnakht, who had the two forecourts and eastern area of the tomb's interior remodelled to serve as a cult chapel. Under his instruction both the forecourt walls and the second pylon, which separated the two courtyards, were covered with sandstone slabs. On the eastern side of the second pylon a row of four pillars was erected on either side of the entranceway. The second (= inner) forecourt was transformed into a roofed peristyle by the construction of 26 sandstone columns. The walls of the second forecourt and the columns of the peristyle were decorated with reliefs and inscriptions.

Presumably the complex built by the High Priest had already been intentionally destroyed by the late Ramesside period (ca. 1100 B.C., i.e. around 50 years after its construction). This was substantiated by a ca. 1 m high destruction layer visible directly above the natural bedrock, which, along with other finds such as ceramic sherds, contained thousands of sandstone fragments and chips: fragments of relief and inscriptions, architectural elements and substantial quantities of undecorated material. Many of the fragments bear traces of deliberate damage and secondary working, which indicate the final usage of this site as a sandstone quarry. The damage inflicted on the complex probably correlates to a specific historical event, which has been termed the "suppression of the High Priest" in Egyptological literature (presumably in year 12 of Ramses XI's reign). Following the conflict between the son and successor in office of Ramsesnakht, the High Priest Amenophis, and Panehsi, the viceroy of Kush (Nubia), several buildings belonging to the Theban temple administration were attacked by Panehsi's troops. This hypothesis is supported by the results of the most recent excavations in K93.12.

Fig. 10: K93.11: View of the forecourts and facade from the east © DAIBased on just under 5000 significant (registered and individually documented) fragments an attempt was started to reconstruct the decoration programme and architectural details of Ramsesnakht's complex as exactly as possible. The undecorated, unspecific sandstone material was recorded summarily e.g. the total weight/the weight of the individual fragments. An analysis of the decorated fragments established that the scenes represented Ramsesnakht, in some cases together with family members, worshipping different gods e.g. Amun-Ra, Khons and Osiris (fig. 13.). The accompanying texts are of both religious (hymns to the gods) and autobiographical nature (e.g. distributing the gold of honour to the High Priest). An unusual feature of the Ramesside complex is the Hathor capitals (capitals with the face of the goddess Hathor). In the New Kingdom capitals of this kind exist only in a temple context in connection with female deities. As an element of tomb architecture Hathor capitals first appear in the Late Period. There are also other indications supporting the theory that this complex was not used as the High Priest's tomb (e.g. no remains of burial equipment belonging to Ramsesnakht have been discovered) but served as a shrine or chapel. However, the question of the exact function of this monument is yet to be claryfied. Dr. Ute Rummel is currently in the process of documenting and analyzing the material discovered in K93.11. Initial results have been published in several preliminary reports and individual studies (→ literature).

Fig. 11: K93.11: Overview of the two forecourts © DAIIn post-Ramesside periods, once the complex of Ramsesnakht had already been destroyed, the terrain was reused in two phases: in the Third Intermediate and Late Period (21st to 26th dynasty) K93.11 continued to be used as a burial ground. Whilst the two existing main shafts were used for new burials during the 21st and 22nd dynasty, various smaller intrusive shafts and chambers were constructed along the walls of the second forecourt during the 26th dynasty (the analysis of the late period burials was carried out by Elke Mählitz, M.A.). The site then remained unused up until the Late Antique/Coptic Period. The development or rather the usage of this phase (ca. 6th to 8th century) extended over both forecourts and also incorporated the tomb interior. The Coptic structures found in both forecourts are elements of the working area of the monastery Deir el-Bachit, the remains of which are situated on the hilltop above K93.11. These structures served primarily for grain storage and processing e.g. silos, mills and ovens. Since the autumn of 2001 the evaluation and publication of the Coptic material as well as the archaeological excavation of the monastery Deir el-Bachit has been carried out as a joint project of the German Institute of Archaeology, Cairo and the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich (→ cooperation).

Fig. 12: K93.11: Tomb interior © DAIFig. 13: K93.11: Relief fragment (sandstone) from the cult complex constructed by the High Priest Ramsesnakht. The piece shows Ramsesnakht's father, Meribastet. © DAI

Recent Activities

Area H

Fig. 14: Area H: View from the southeast before excavation (2001) © DAIExcavation in this area began in 2001 and has continued until the present date (fig. 14 and 15.). During the course of the spring season 2001 the remains of the pyramid of king Nub-Kheper-Re Intef (one of the last kings of the 17th dynasty) were discovered and excavated. The successful localisation of the pyramid was aided by details given in the over 3000 year old Papyrus Abbott (exhibited in the British Museum), which among other things, mentions the pyramid of king Intef and contains references to its location. A special terrace system was employed for the excavation of the structures located on the steeply sloping terrain, in order to systematically clear away the most significant stratified material in the lower levels of the rubble.

Fig. 15: Area H: Plan of the pyramid, of Teti's shrine and the surrounding shafts (drawing by P. Collet)Located around the pyramid several contemporary and also older tomb shafts (13th dynasty, ca. 1790 ­ 1645 B.C.) were found, which highlight the significance of this site as a traditional and holy burial ground. Amongst others, the tomb chapel and its corresponding shaft belonging to a high court official of Nub-Kheper-Re Intef's named Teti was discovered. All of the graves had been plundered, some during the pharaonic period, and only a fraction of their original funerary equipment, albeit badly damaged, were found as a result of the excavation (ceramic vessels [fig. 16.], small servant figures [ushabtis], ceremonial staffs, furniture, mats, baskets, textiles, foodstuffs, garlands etc.). Of the burials themselves only remains of mummies (or rather individual bones) and their wrappings as well as fragments of wooden coffins could be recovered. In October of 2004 the unusually well preserved wooden coffin ensemble of Imeni and Geheset was found in the shaft tomb complex K03.4. Since the discovery of both coffins, the conservation has been carried out by Erico Peintner (cleaning, restoration, consolidation). The religious texts of Imeni's coffin are being studied by Prof. Dr. Antonio Loprieno, University of Basel. A richly illustrated volume on the coffins and their recovery documenting different research aspects of this find (archaeology, religion, anthropology) was published in September 2007.

In the autumn campaign of 2005 (18th September to 8th December), the area immediately to the south of the wall surrounding the pyramid was excavated to clarify the connection to the adjacent tomb TT 232, one of the largest saff-tombs in Thebes. Based on the ca. 250 funerary cones found in the forecourt (fig. 22), TT 232 can be undoubtedly assigned to the High Priest of Amun, Min-Montu (reign of Amenophis I). During excavation, a deposit of ceramic vessels dating to the 17th dynasty was found, which must have been used in the rituals performed at Nub-Kheper-Re's pyramid. In addition, three shaft tombs (13th to 17th dynasty), situated on the terrace to the south of the pyramid, were excavated and documented. One of the graves (K03.3) was used no less than three times for secondary burials after its original construction in the 13th dynasty: in the 17th, early 18th and 20th dynasty (this corresponds to the period ca. 1750 ­ 1100 B.C.).

In the spring of 2006, the bone material found in shaft grave K03.4 was anthropologically examined by Prof. Dr. A. Nerlich and PD Dr. A. Zink (→ cooperation), during the course of which a large part of Geheset's skeleton could be identified. The most significant results, which for example shed light age and origins of this woman, are published in the book "Für die Ewigkeit geschaffen" ("Made for Eternity") (→ literature). Furthermore, the restoration of the two wooden coffins was continued. Among other things, an infrared camera was used in this process to enable the documentation of any older layers of paint, and thus multiple use of the external coffin (Imeni). This camera was kindly loaned to the DAI Cairo by the Württembergisches Landesmuseum Stuttgart. This examination made remains of hieroglyphic lettering in ink found under the painting on the eastern longitudinal side legible under infrared light. The south wall of the Imeni coffin that had been hacked apart by tomb robbers was almost completely reconstructed in the autumn of 2006.

Fig. 16: Ceramic analysis: reconstruction of a vessel by Tayeb Ahmed Taher © DAIAt the start of the autumn campaign of 2006 (25th September to 22nd October), the examination begun in 2005 in the forecourt of the Min-Montu tomb (TT 232) was continued. The white limestone debris that had accumulated in the 20th/21st dynasty during the reconstruction of the tomb was salvaged, as well as large quantities of pottery from this period. In addition, in October 2006, a four-week-long digital survey conducted by Manja Maschke for the 3D animation was completed.

Area E: The complex K93.12

In October 2006, the archaeological examination of tomb complex K93.12 was begun. This involves the southern section of the extended double tomb complex K93.11/K93.12, the northern part of which was excavated and documented in the years 1993 to 2000 (see above). The project in K93.12 is part of research cluster 4 (work area 3: "designed space"). Excavations are directed by Dr. Ute Rummel. In two campaigns thus far, (autumn of 2006, spring of 2007) parts of the inner courtyard and of the tomb interior were excavated and interesting findings regarding the phases of use of the entire complex were made.

Methodology

The excavation is carried out in sections of varying size (i.e. depending on the individual situation of the area or object to be examined) or in terraces as necessitated by the slope of the debris from the necropolis. The excavated finds were surveyed using a Total Station, documented with photographs, and for the most part recorded in sketches. The surveying of the individual finds is also carried out with the Total Station. An AutoCAD-based digital system was used to document not only the tomb complexes (fig. 3), but the topography of the excavation terrain as well. A virtual 3D animation of the tombs (created by Dipl.-Ing. Manja Maschke, Dresden) illustrates the positions of the shafts and chambers, some of which are tangential to each other, and attempts a reconstruction of the pyramid complex (fig. 18). The anthropological and palaeopathological examination of the mummies or bone material was carried out by Prof. Dr. Andreas Nerlich and PD Dr. Albert Zink (→ Cooperation); the botanical remains were analyzed by Drs. Reinder Neef.

Results

Fig. 17: Cross-section of the shaft complex K01.12 (drawing by P. Collet)The excavation results especially of the last seven years enable a better understanding of both the burial customs and funerary beliefs as well as the chronological sequence of the Second Intermediate Period rulers. Furthermore it is now possible to follow the development of grave types from the 13th to the 18th dynasty and also to establish the parallelism between grave types and forms. The classical grave form of the early Second Intermediate Period is the shaft tomb, which comprises of a shaft 7-10 m in depth, with a burial chamber at its lowest point, branching off to the west (fig. 17). The shaft entrance is surrounded by a wall, made of unfired mud bricks. At the end of the Second Intermediate Period the shaft is between 3 and 5 m deep and has, as a rule, two subterranean chambers (one in the east and one in the west). A further innovation is the erection of small tomb superstructures (chapels) of unfired mud bricks, two of which were discovered in Area H. Parallel to this gradual change is the construction of rock-cut tombs in the 17th dynasty, which follows a separate morphological development. The development of both types of graves runs parallel to one another until the middle of the 18th dynasty (reign of Hatshepsut/Thutmose III).

Fig. 18: 3D-reconstruction of the pyramid of Nub-Kheper-Re Intef © DAIOne of the most significant results was achieved through the discovery of Nub-Kheper-Re's pyramid complex: The controversial question of whether the royal graves of the 17th dynasty had been provided with pyramids, which has been a long-standing matter in the field of Egyptology, could be answered positively. The mudbrick pyramid, the remains of which stand at a maximum height of 1,20 m, was once 13m high and covered with a white plaster (fig. 18). The pyramid was crowned by a capstone, or so-called pyramidion, which was inscribed with the king's name and titulary (fig. 19). Three fragments of the limestone pyramidion could be recovered; the rest is lost. The pyramid is surrounded by a small enclosure wall, which is also made of mud bricks and was formerly covered with Fig. 19: Fragments of the limestone pyramidion of Nub-Kheper-Re Intef © DAIa white plaster. The pyramid has been built using a shell construction method, i.e. only the outer casing is walled, whereas the interior was filled with rubble. The actual burial complex has not yet been found. A preliminary publication dealing with the architecture of the pyramid complex has already been produced (→ literature). The pyramid as an archaeological feature has contributed to our understanding of the necropolis' development: By having his pyramid complex built in the necropolis of the 13th dynasty, King Nub-Kheper-Re intentionally selected a traditional burial ground. The pyramid itself was erected above a shaft dating to this period. The exact reasons for his choice remain unclear (possibly due to familial connections?). Also within the individual shaft tombs in Area H there is clear evidence in some cases of up to four occupation phases, each secondary burial however took those burials, which were already present, into consideration.

The remains of burial equipment, which were recovered in the course of the excavations, in particular the large amounts of offering and ritual ceramic vessels, allow for conclusions to be made about ritual practices performed at the gravesite and consequently the development of underlying funeral beliefs. The analysis of the ceramic material found in Area H forms the fundamental research concerning ceramics of the Second Intermediate Period in Thebes: This analysis has shown that the form spectrum was characterised by a local ceramic tradition and differs greatly in essential aspects from contemporary material originating from other sites particularly those located in the north of the country. In addition the ceramic material indicates changes in burial concepts: Whilst the emphasis during the 13th dynasty lies on the material provision of the deceased with foodstuffs and corresponding vessel forms (fig. 20.), this assemblage is replaced in the 17th dynasty by new forms, some of which have a specific significance in ritual and magic used for the deceased's protection (fig. 21). The ceramic analysis resulted furthermore in new insights into the origin of standard forms of the 18th dynasty. The ceramic material has been analysed by Dr. Anne Seiler and has already been published in part (→ literature).

Fig. 20: Ceramic vessels dating to the 13th dynasty from the shaft complex K03.5 © DAIFig. 21: Ceramic vessels dating to the 17th dynasty from the shaft complex K03.3 © DAIAbb. 22: Stamp on the funerary cone of the High Priest of Amun, Min-Month © DAI

Cooperation / Cooperation partners

The project was carried out from 1993 to 2000 in cooperation with the University of California Los Angeles. Since 1992, the mummies and skeletal material are being analyzed by the Institute of Pathology at the University of Munich (palaeopathology section) under the direction of PD Dr. Franz Parsche, Prof. Dr. Andreas Nerlich (University of Munich), and PD Dr. Albert Zink (Institute for Mummies and the Iceman, EURAC, Bolzano) (Archeomed). Restoration work was done by Andrea Fischer, State Academy of Fine Arts, Stuttgart (fragments of wooden coffins from the 26th dynasty: 1999-2000) and by Christian Eckmann, Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum Mainz (ivory fragments from K93.11; 2001).

 

Since 2001, excavations are being carried out in the Coptic monastery Deir el-Bakhit in cooperation with the Ludwig Maximilian University. This project is directed by Prof. Dr. Günter Burkard and PD Dr. Daniel Polz. From 2001-2003 the excavations were led by Prof. Dr. Michael Mackensen. Since 2004, the excavations in Deir el-Bakhit have been funded as a German Research Foundation (DFG) project. Excavation director is Dr. Ina Eichner.

Foerderung

Studiosus Reisen München GmbH (2001-2004)
Association of the Friends of the German Archaeological Institute - Theodor Wiegand Gesellschaft e.V.

Bibliography

Preliminary reports in publications of the DAI Cairo

 

Burkard, G./Mackensen, M./Polz, D., in: MDAIK 59, 2003, S. 41-65

Kruck, E., Dra’ Abu el-Naga I. Eindrücke: Grabkegel als Elemente thebanischer Grabarchitektur, AV 124, Wiesbaden 2012

Polz, D., in: MDAIK 48, 1992, S. 109-130

Ders., in: MDAIK 49, 1993, S. 227-238

Ders., in: MDAIK 51, 1995, S. 207-225

Polz, D./Gordon, W.E./Nerlich, A./Piccato, A./Rummel, U./Voß, S./Seiler, A., in: MDAIK 55, 1999, S. 343-410

Polz, D./Mählitz, E./Rummel, U./Seiler, A., in: MDAIK 59, 2003, S. 317-388

Polz, D./Rummel, U./Eichner, I./Beckh, Th., Topographical Archaeology in Dra’ Abu el-Naga. Three Thousand Years of Cultural History, in: MDAIK 68, 2012 (forthcoming)

Polz, D./Seiler, A., Die Pyramidenanlage des Königs Nubcheperre, SDAIK 24, Mainz 2003

Rummel, U., Der Tempel im Grab: Die Doppelgrabanlage K93.11/K93.12 in Dra’ Abu el-Naga, in: I. Gerlach/D. Raue (Hrsg.), Forschungscluster 4. Sanktuar und Ritual: Heilige Plätze im archäologischen Befund, MKT 10, Rahden/Westf. 2013, S. 223-235. Ein Zwischenbericht aus der Clusterforschung des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts 2006-2009 (PDF, 1.37MB)

Seiler, A., Tradition & Wandel. Die Keramik als Spiegel der Kulturentwicklung Thebens in der Zweiten Zwischenzeit, SDAIK 32, Mainz 2005.

 

Further articles and studies

 

Burkard, G., Ein früher Beleg der Kemit (O DAN hierat 5), in: N. Kloth et al. (Hrsg.), Es werde niedergelegt als Schriftstück. Festschrift für Hartwig Altenmüller, SAK Beiheft 9, Hamburg 2003, S. 37-48

Hilbig, A., Die Grabdekoration der Bestattungsanlage K01.1 in Dra‘ Abu el-Naga, in: G. Neunert/K. Gabler/A. Verbovsek (Hrsg.), Nekropolen: Grab – Bild – Ritual. Beiträge des zweiten Münchner Arbeitskreises Junge Aegyptologie (MAJA 2), 2.12. bis 4.12.2011, GOF IV/54, 2013, S. 67-87

Kruck, E., Eindrücke im Kontext der Gesellschaft. Grabkegel aus der thebanische Nekropole von Dra‘ Abu el-Naga, in: G. Neunert, K. Gabler, A. Verbovsek (Hrsg.), Sozialisationen: Individuum – Gruppe – Gesellschaft. Beiträge des ersten Münchner Arbeitskreises Junge Aegyptologie (MAJA 1), 3. bis 5.12.2010, GOF IV/51, Wiesbaden 2012, S. 143-152

Lösch, S./Moghaddam, N./Paladin, A./Rummel, U./Hower-Tilmann, E./Zink, A., Morphological-anthropological investigations in tomb K93.12 at Dra’ Abu el-Naga (Western Thebes, Egypt), in: Anthropologischer Anzeiger (forthcoming)

Michels, S., Kornosiris – Osirisbeet: Vorhofbefunde aus Dra‘ Abu el-Naga, in: G. Neunert/K. Gabler/A. Verbovsek (Hrsg.), Nekropolen: Grab – Bild – Ritual. Beiträge des zweiten Münchner Arbeitskreises Junge Aegyptologie (MAJA 2), 2.12. bis 4.12.2011, GOF IV/54, 2013, S. 161-179

Dies., Cult and funerary pottery from the tomb-temple K93.12 at the end of the 20th dynasty (Dra‘ Abu el-Naga/Western Thebes), in: B. Bader/ Chr. M. Knoblauch/E. Chr. Köhler (eds.),Vienna 2 – Ancient Egyptian Ceramics in the 21st Century. Proceedings of the International Conference held at the University of Vienna 14th-18th of May 2012, OLA, Leuven (im Druck)

Polz, D., in: Egyptian Archaeology 7, 1995, S. 6-8

Ders., in: J. Assmann et al. (Hrsg.), Thebanische Beamtennekropolen. Neue Perspektiven archäologischer Forschung, Internationales Symposion Heidelberg 9.-13.6. 1993, SAGA 12, Heidelberg 1995, S. 25-42

Ders., in: Egyptian Archaeology 10, 1997, S. 34-35

Ders., in: SAK 25, 1998, S. 257-293

Ders., in: The Egyptian Museum at the Millennium, Kairo 2000, S. 40f., no. 28

Ders., in: Welt und Umwelt der Bibel, 4/2001, Stuttgart 2001, S. 70-72

Ders., in: Antike Welt 33/3, 2002, S. 289-295

Ders., in: H. Guksch et al. (Hrsg.), Grab und Totenkult im Alten Ägypten, München 2003, S. 75-87

Ders., in: Egyptian Archaeology 22, 2003, S. 12-15

Ders., in: CASAE 34/II, Le Caire 2005, S. 233-245

Ders., in: G. Dreyer/D. Polz (Hrsg.), Begegnung mit der Vergangenheit. 100 Jahre in Ägypten. Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Kairo 1907-2007, Mainz 2007, S. 234-243

Ders., Der Beginn des Neuen Reiches. Zur Vorgeschichte einer Zeitenwende, SDAIK 31, Berlin 2007 (inklusive DVD: Animation des Areals H sowie weiteres Illustrationsmatieral)

Ders. (Hrsg.), Für die Ewigkeit geschaffen. Die Särge des Imeni und der Geheset, Mainz 2007 (inklusive DVD: Animation des Areals H und Dokumentarfilm über die Bergung des Sargensembles)

Ders., Der Hohepriester des Amun Minmonth und seine Grabanlage in Theben, in: D. Kessler et al. (Hrsg.), Texte – Theben – Tonfragmente. Festschrift für Günter Burkard, ÄAT 76, Wiesbaden 2009, S. 337-347

Ders., New Archaeological Data from Dra‘ Abu el-Naga and their Historical Implications, in: M. Marée (Hrsg.), The Second Intermediate Period (Thirteenth – Seventeenth Dynasties). Current Research, Future Projects, OLA 192, Leuven-Paris-Walpole 2010, S. 343-353

Ders., Zur Genese thebanischer Nekropolen, in: G. Neunert/K. Gabler/A. Verbovsek (Hrsg.), Nekropolen: Grab – Bild – Ritual. Beiträge des zweiten Münchner Arbeitskreises Junge Aegyptologie (MAJA 2), 2.12. bis 4.12.2011, GOF IV, 2013, S. 197-206

Rummel, U., in: Egyptian Archaeology 14, 1999, S. 3-6

Dies., in: M. Eldamaty/M. Trad (Hrsg.), Egyptian Museum Collections around the World. Studies for the Centennial of the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Kairo 2002, S. 1025-1034

Dies., in: N. Kloth et al. (Hrsg.), „Ramsesnacht-dauert“. Die Beziehung zwischen Namenspatron und Namensträger am Beispiel einer Besucherinschrift aus Dra’ Abu el-Naga, in: N. Kloth et al. (Hrsg.), Es werde niedergelegt als Schriftstück. Festschrift für Hartwig Altenmüller zum 65. Geburtstag, SAK Beiheft 9, Hamburg 2003, S. 367-377

Dies., in: U. Rummel (Hrsg.), Begegnung mit der Vergangenheit. 100 Jahre in Ägypten. Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Kairo 1907-2007, Katalog zur Sonderausstellung im Ägyptischen Museum in Kairo (19. November 2007 bis 15. Januar 2008), Kairo 2007

Dies., Grab oder Tempel? Die funeräre Anlage des Hohenpriesters des Amun Amenophis in Dra’ Abu el-Naga (Theben-West), in: D. Kessler et al. (Hrsg.), Texte – Theben – Tonfragmente. Festschrift für Günter Burkard, ÄAT 76, Wiesbaden 2009, S. 348-360

Dies., Two re-used blocks of the God’s Wife Isis at Deir el-Bakhit/Dra’ Abu el-Naga (Western Thebes), in: S. Snape/M. Collier (Hrsg.), Ramesside Studies in Honour of K.A. Kitchen, Bolton 2010, S. 423-431

Dies., Gräber, Feste, Prozessionen: Der Ritualraum Theben-West in der Ramessidenzeit, in: G. Neunert/K. Gabler/A. Verbovsek (Hrsg.), Nekropolen: Grab – Bild – Ritual. Beiträge des zweiten Münchner Arbeitskreises Junge Aegyptologie (MAJA 2), 2.12. bis 4.12.2011, IV/54, 2013, S. 207-232

Dies., Ramesside tomb-temples at Dra’ Abu el-Naga, in: Egyptian Archaeology 42, spring 2013, S. 14-17

U. Rummel/St. Fetler, The coffins of the 3rd Intermediate Period from tomb K93.12 at Dra' Abu el-Naga: aspects of archaeology, typology, and conservation, in: A. Amenta, Chr. Greco, H. Guichard (eds.), Proceedings of the First Vatican Coffin Conference June 19th-22nd, 2013, Edizioni Musei Vaticani (forthcoming)

Seiler, A., in: J. Assmann et al. (Hrsg.), Thebanische Beamtennekropolen. Neue Perspektiven archäologischer Forschung, Internationales Symposion Heidelberg 9.-13.6. 1993, SAGA 12, Heidelberg 1995, S. 25-42.

Recent projects

  • 17.06.2014

    The tomb complexes K93.11/93.12 in Dra’ Abu el-Naga/Western Thebes (Luxor) more

  • 29.10.2013

    Dra' Abu el-Naga/Western Thebes more

  • 01.07.2013

    AEgArOn more

Completed projects

  • 10.01.2013

    Die Archäometallurgie des Sinai, Ägypten more

  • 30.07.2012

    Heliopolis more

  • 30.07.2012

    The coffin ensemble of Imeni and Geheset more

Contact

The German Archaeological Institute (DAI) is a »scientific corporation« of the Federal Institution under the auspices of the Foreign Office. The staff of the Institute carries out research in the area of archaeology and in related fields and maintains relations with international scholars.
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