AA 2010/1 and Annual Report 2009
AA 2009/1 and Annual Report 2008
AA 2008/1 and Annual Report 2007
AA 2007/1 and Annual Report 2006
For further information on this volume please look here.
Chaim Cohen – Joseph Maran – Melissa Vetters
An Ivory Rod with a Cuneiform Inscription, Most Probably Ugaritic, from a Final Palatial Workshop in the Lower Citadel of Tiryns >>
Nails, Pins, Rivets … A Typology of Fastening Technology in the Heraion of Samos >>
Pliny the Elder, the Number LVI and the Colossus of Rhodes >>
Hans Mommsen – Max von Haugwitz – Gerhard Jöhrens
Provenance of Amphoras with Stamped Handles from the Excavations at Miletos Using Neutron Activation Analysis >>
The Caesar Farnese and Trajan’s Forum >>
Thorsten Westphal – Willy Tegel – Karl-Uwe Heußner – Petrika Lera – Karl-Friedrich Rittershofer
First Dendrochronological Datings of Historical Timber in Albania >>
Wolfram Martini – Norbert Eschbach – Matthias Recke
Perge in Pamphylia. New Evidence of Parha on the River Kastraja. Report on the Excavation Campaign of 2008 >>
Hans Lohmann – Georg Kalaitzoglou – Gundula Lüdorf
Sondages in the Fortified Carian Mountain Settlement of Melia in the Mycale (Dilek Dağları/Aydın) >>
Pergamon – Report on the Projects of the 2009 Campaign
With contributions by Martin Bachmann, Wiebke Bebermeier, Helmut Brückner, Ercan Erkul, Stefan Feuser, Barbara Horejs, Christina Klein, Maria Knipping, Adnan Sarıoğlu, Steffen Schneider, Brigitta Schütt, Martin Seeliger, Harald Stümpel and Martin Zimmermann >>
Information for Authors
Chaim Cohen – Joseph Maran – Melissa Vetters, An Ivory Rod with a Cuneiform Inscription, Most Probably Ugaritic, from a Final Palatial Workshop in the Lower Citadel of Tiryns
The subject of this contribution is the fragment of an ivory rod with six cuneiform signs that was found in 2002. The rod came to light in a destruction layer dating to LH III B Final within a workshop for skilled crafting inside Building XI which is situated in the northernmost part of the Lower Citadel of Tiryns. The inscription is interpreted as the first example of an Ugaritic text found outside of the Levant. The text is written from left to right combining Akkadian logographic numerical signs and at least one letter of the regular Ugaritic alphabet. After discussing different possibilities concerning the object’s function, an interpretation as a ›tally stick‹ is proposed, i. e. a mnemonic device to document numbers, quantities or possibly a message, that was used by Levantine or Cypriote specialists for skilled crafting who were working in Building XI on behalf of the palace. The find assemblage in Building XI serves as a reminder that it would be highly misleading to regard oriental objects like the ivory rod with cuneiform signs or wall brackets appearing in a Mycenaean harbor town such as Tiryns as mere ›exotica‹. Instead, contextual analysis demonstrates that the users were well aware of the special significance attached to such objects in the east and employed them in accordance with practices of Near Eastern or Cypriote origin, thus signaling their cultural affiliations.
Keywords: Tiryns • Ugarit • Ugaritic Alphabet • Akkadian • abbreviations • Late Helladic III B • tally stick • East Mediterranean Trade ▲
Uwe Peltz, Nails, Pins, Rivets … A Typology of Fastening Technology in the Heraion of Samos
The finds from the Heraion of Samos provide the basis for a systematic classification of the elements of ancient fastening technology. These can be divided into principal groups, each of which can be further subdivided according to types. The principal groups are defined by the function of the fastening elements, while the types are classified according to their characteristic form or sphere of use. The typology reflects the current state of research but can be updated and supplemented at any time to take account of new finds.
Keywords: fastening technology • classification of fastening elements • Heraion of Samos • construction research • nails ▲
Ursula Vedder, Pliny the Elder, the Number LVI and the Colossus of Rhodes
Only in Pliny’s Naturalis historia 34, 41 is a number recorded for the years between the dedication of the Colossus of Rhodes and its destruction in the earthquake of 227 B.C. Although all medieval Pliny manuscripts give the number in the Latin numerals LVI, since the 19th century the reading as LXVI was established. The reason for this is the erasure of the letter L before the number LVI in the Codex Bambergensis Msc. Class. 42. A new detailed photograph illustrates, however, that the number LXVI was not in fact written by mistake as LLVI, from which an L was then removed. Rather, the scribe mistakenly wrote the small L of a text word, erased it, and then went on to write the capitals of the number LVI on the roughened surface next to the erased letter.
Keywords: Pliny nat. 34, 41 • Codex Bambergensis Msc. Class. 42 • Helios • Colossus • Rhodes ▲
Hans Mommsen – Max von Haugwitz – Gerhard Jöhrens, Provenance of Amphoras with Stamped Handles from the Excavations at Miletos Using Neutron Activation Analysis
Using neutron activation analysis, elemental concentration patterns of a selection of 39 fragments of stamped handles from amphoras, predominantly of the Hellenistic period, from the excavations at Miletos have been measured and studied. The aim was to determine the production places of these vessels in order to learn more about the usage of the stamps. The result was, as already archaeologically assumed, that the majority of the vessels (34) were produced with the same clay paste in workshops that were presumably located in the surroundings of Miletos – Ioniapolis. But this large group also includes vessels with stamps of hitherto unknown provenance and pieces with stamps that have been assigned to a production at Phocaia. Only three handles were found to come from the island of Kos, confirming the archaeological attribution, and two vessels remain of unknown provenance.
Keywords: Miletos • Ioniapolis • handles • stamps • provenance • neutron activation analysis ▲
Markus Trunk, The Caesar Farnese and Trajan’s Forum
P. Zanker conjectures that the colossal bust of Caesar from the Farnese Collection (Naples, Museo Nazionale Inv. 6038) originates from the context of Trajan’s Forum. This conjecture has been largely disputed in German-language research above all. Not only can the actual provenience be established but it is also possible to reconstruct the context in which it was originally displayed.
Keywords: Caesar • portrait • Trajan’s Forum ▲
Thorsten Westphal – Willy Tegel – Karl-Uwe Heußner – Petrika Lera – Karl-Friedrich Rittershofer, First Dendrochronological Datings of Historical Timber in Albania
The dendrochronological investigations were conducted primarily on timber from the region of Korça in the south-east of Albania. The samples come from recent trees, from churches, secular buildings, icons and from the piles of prehistoric settlements on the shore of the Great Prespa Lake and on the Macedonian side of Lake Ohrid. The majority of the 564 samples come from conifers, in particular European Black Pine (Pinus nigra), Bosnian Pine (Pinus heldreichii), fir (Abies sp.) and in prehistoric times also juniper (Juniperus sp.). So far it has only been possible to sample wood from deciduous trees like beech (Fagus sp.) and oak (Quercus sp.) on a much smaller scale. The samples enable us to establish median series of annual growth rings from the Neolithic (6th millennium), middle Bronze Age (3rd millennium), the Middle Ages and the modern era. Absolute datings are at the moment sufficient only for timber finds from the last 1 000 years. So far, 219 annual growth ring series from 36 icons and seven buildings have been dated. The contribution also discusses aspects of climate history, the history of building and art, and historical forms of forest utilization. The continuation of these investigations is contributing significantly to the development of an absolute chronological framework for the region south and south-east of the Alps.
Keywords: Albania • dendrochronology • wetland archaeology • icons • churches ▲
Wolfram Martini – Norbert Eschbach – Matthias Recke, Perge in Pamphylia. New Evidence of Parha on the River Kastraja. Report on the Excavation Campaign of 2008
In a concluding campaign in 2008 on the Acropolis of Perge, two sites with a scarcely disturbed sequence of layers from the Chalcolithic to the early Byzantine era were investigated. Above all, the Bronze Age layers and to a lesser extent the early and middle Iron Age layers – along with the finds and walls they contain – were dated on the basis of 14C-datings from botanical samples and bones. The Bronze Age layers, documented for the first time at Perge, in conjunction with the local geomorphological structure indicate that further well-preserved Bronze and early Iron Age features are likely to be found east of these excavated sections in an area measuring some 25 m × 70 m. A large, carefully constructed hearth altar of clay with a libation appliance from the phase LH III C together with various cult objects and architectural remains from the middle and late Bronze Age attest a socially and culturally differentiated settlement on the table mountain, whose identity with the documented, Hittite era Parha on the river Kastraja is now highly probable.
Keywords: Perge • Parha • Bronze Age • early Iron Age • hearth altar ▲
Hans Lohmann – Georg Kalaitzoglou – Gundula Lüdorf, Sondages in the Fortified Carian Mountain Settlement of Melia in the Mycale (Dilek Dağları/Aydın)
Four sondages undertaken in the fortified mountain settlement of Melia in 2009 confirmed that the settlement originated in the middle of the 7th century B.C. but was destroyed as early as 600/590 B.C. and abandoned. Its extensive fortifications were apparently begun at the end of the 7th century but never completed. The fortified area was ultimately limited to the two citadels in the north-east and south-west. After 570/560 B.C., the Archaic Panionion was erected amid the ruins on the earlier cult site of the Carian settlement, but was destroyed by fire c. 550 B.C. The mysterious ramp, meaningless in fortification terms, which leads from the Panionion up to the north-east citadel is perhaps to be explained by a never-realized plan to rebuild the Panionion on the north-east citadel. A road would be indispensable for the purpose of transporting architectural members to the north-east citadel. Further investigations at Melia would be desirable.
Keywords: Çatallar Tepe • Dilek Dağları • Carians • Melia • Mycale ▲
Felix Pirson, Pergamon – Report on the Projects of the 2009 Campaign
In 2009, the projects of the Pergamon Excavation focused on the investigation of the Hellenistic royal city as well as the surrounding area in the framework of the current research programme. In the course of conservation work on the Red Hall, the conversion of the southern round tower into a museum was completed and the first stage of construction was inaugurated. Field research on the east slope of the acropolis mountain concentrated on the potential natural sanctuaries and the so-called workshop. In the process a site was identified with a very high degree of probability as a sanctuary of Meter-Cybele and in general the evidence increased of cult activities in this part of the urban area. The discovery of a road on the upper east slope is of great importance for an understanding of the urban infrastructure. In the surrounding region, work once again centred on the poleis of Atarneus and Elaia, the early Bronze Age settlement site of Yeni Yeldeğirmentepe, the western part of the Kaikos valley, the Kane Peninsula and the area around Elaia. Contrary to expectations, several ancient settlement sites were identified in the alluvial plain of river Kaikos; this, in combination with the geoarchaeological investigations conducted here for the first time in 2009, will lead to the reconstruction of a historically differentiated picture of the environment and settlement structure. At Elaia, thanks to a combination of archaeological, geophysical and geoarchaeological methods, it is now possible to follow the history of the settlement and its harbours from the 3rd millennium B.C. until their abandonment in the 6th/7th century. Here, important new information has been provided in particular by 14C-datings on the establishment and silting up of the closed harbour and by two pollen profiles from its basin. In the area surrounding Elaia, a potential early Byzantine successor to the city has been discovered. In addition, we have gained an insight into the military system controlling access to the Kaikos valley from the south. An emergency excavation in a tumulus north of Elaia brought to light an unusual installation which may be an expression of conscious commemoration of the mythical past of the city and landscape.
Keywords: Pergamon • Elaia • Atarneus • Yeni Yeldeğirmentepe • natural sanctuaries • geoarchaeology • harbours • street grid • tumulus • Red Hall ▲