Erforschung und Schutz archäologischer Stätten sind untrennbar miteinander verbunden. Häufig stehen die archäologischen Unternehmungen jedoch hinsichtlich der Erhaltung und Sicherung der antiken Monumente vor Aufgaben, die ihre Möglichkeiten und Kompetenzen überschreiten. Erfahrungen von verschiedenen Orten und eine breite Kenntnis von Fallbeispielen sind daher wichtige Voraussetzungen für eine angemessen auf die Besonderheiten einer archäologischen Stätte reagierende Konzeptfindung.
Das Deutsche Archäologische Institut Abteilung Istanbul hat sich vor diesem Hintergrund entschlossen, eine neue Publikationsreihe mit dem Namen MIRAS (Management, Instandsetzung und Restaurierung an Archäologischen Stätten in der Türkei) zu eröffnen, in der solche Fallbeispiele in loser Folge vorgelegt werden sollen. Gedacht ist an eine Materialsammlung, die Projekte aus dem Bereich der archäologischen Denkmalpflege mit Site-Management-Planungen und Entwicklungskonzepten für archäologische Stätten verbindet. Durch solch eine thematisch gebundene Reihe soll ein Forum des Austauschs denkmalpflegerischer und konzeptioneller Erfahrungen entstehen, das für den Umgang mit den großen konservatorischen Herausforderungen an archäologischen Stätten in der Türkei Anregungen und Impulse vermitteln soll. Unterstützend soll dabei die zweisprachige Ausführung der Reihe wirken.
Bachmann, Martin – Çiğdem Maner - Seçil Tezer – Duygu Göçmen (eds.)
HERITAGE IN CONTEXT
Konservierung und Site Management im natürlichen, urbanen und sozialen Raum / Conservation and Site Management within Natural, Urban and Social Frameworks/ Doğal, Kentsel ve Sosyal Çerçevede Koruma ve Alan Yönetimi
394 Seiten, Beiträge zweisprachig Englisch/Türkisch und Deutsch/Türkisch
Vorwort zum Konferenzband Heritage in Context (Martin Bachmann)
Heritage in Context Konferansı Kitabına Önsöz (Martin Bachmann)
Preface (Lucienne Thys-Şenocak)
Önsöz (Lucienne Thys-Şenocak)
Prologue (Neriman Şahin Güçhan)
Önsöz (Neriman Şahin Güçhan)
Birgitta RINGBECK, Managementpläne für Welterbestätten – Integrierte Planungs- und Handlungskonzepte für den Kulturerhalt / Dünya Kültür Mirası Alanları için Yönetim Planları – Kültür Mirasının Korunması için Entegre Planlama ve Uygulama Tasarıları
Abstract: A total of 190 State Parties and 936 world heritage sites in 153 countries makes the World Heritage Convention UNESCO’s most successful programme. Not only in quantitative terms, but also with regard to its concept and policies, the World Heritage List can be described as a success. It combines the conservation of cultural heritage with natural heritage, is based on the principle of equality of all cultures, and declares outstanding sites all over the world to be the heritage of all humankind and future generations irrespective of state borders.
The World Heritage Convention of 1972 has become the international community’s forum for our common cultural and natural heritage. It has proved its value as a viable platform for protecting, maintaining and developing this heritage. Effective management, continuous monitoring and public attention across the globe are UNESCO’s most effective weapon in protecting and conserving a world heritage that is seriously threatened by natural and other disasters, wars, infrastructure projects and urban planning, as well as large-scale private sector projects.
The World Heritage Convention calls for conservation of world heritage and stipulates an obligation to upkeep using an integrated approach based on national legal and planning systems. It is to apply to sites of outstanding universal value, but also to heritage that does not fulfill the Convention’s criteria. Extensive public attention makes urban development at world heritage sites take on an increasingly important role model function, and they set the course for innovative approaches.
Martin MÜLLER – Thomas OTTEN, Die Colonia Ulpia Traiana. Eine kulturwirtschaftliche und touristische Erfolgsgeschichte / Colonia Ulpia Traiana. Kültür Ekonomisi ve Turizm Açısından Bir Başarı Öyküsü
Abstract: The Colonia Ulpia Traiana (CUT), with its approximately 73 hectare plot, and the remains of the Roman harbour are listed archaeological sites.
Today, the LVR-Archäologische Park Xanten/ LVR-RömerMuseum (LVR-APX) is an independent entity within the Landschaftsverband Rheinland, which has three basic tasks to fulfil:
1. protecting the archaeological remains
2. researching the CUT and its environs
3. presenting and conveying the Roman remains to a wide public.
The entire area of the CUT is to become the property of the LVR-APX, for protection purposes. By bringing it into the scope of the open air museum, the archaeological site will be permanently protected from interventions by third parties.
At the same time, the possibility of using the whole archaeological site as a museum will form the basis of the knowledge-transfer work of the LVR-APX.
An important objective is the visualisation of the finds below ground level. The LVR-APX is in many respects a model project for North Rhine Westphalia.
For the first time, significant investment has been made in a cultural project within the field of archaeology. This has the advantage that subsidies do not have to be drawn mainly from the purse of cultural heritage preservation, but from the considerably larger purse of state and federal town development. Such aid can only be given on certain conditions:
- the project has to meet the high criteria of the loan program »Urban developmental preser- vation of historic sites«. In this respect the protection of the historical remains in situ, in the form of an archaeological reservation, becomes exemplary for the entire state and its archaeological heritage.
- the whole scheme has to make a noticeable contribution towards the improvement of the townscape and the quality of the experience.
- for a project of this size, the providers, in this case the Landschaftsverband Rheinland, have to ensure long term operation within the aims of the project.
- the investments must be sustainable, i.e. they must contribute to a demonstrable improvement in the tourist performance figures such as the number of overnight stays, growth of employment in the tourist sector, the effect on the gastronomy and retail trades.
According to cost-effectiveness studies and experience hitherto, the LVR-APX is a strong location factor for the touristic and economic development of the town and region. As to the value added, already in the year 2000 each euro invested was bringing in at least a sixfold return to the region. The LVR-APX is a tourist beacon for the entire lower Rhine area.
Christian BIGGI – Ascanio D’ANDREA – Paola PESARESI, Herculaneum: Joining Forces to Secure Heritage Benefits for the Ancient and the Modern Towns / Herculaneum: Antik ve Modern Kentlerin Mirastan Kazanımlarını Korumak için Güçlerin Birleştirilmesi
Abstract: This paper discusses recent efforts at the World Heritage site of Herculaneum to open up the heritage system to greater participation by stakeholders so as to secure heritage benefits for both the ancient Roman town and the modern town that surrounds it. The Herculaneum Conservation Project and the Herculaneum Centre have been working to overcome complex problems at the site, and have gained public attention for their approach to heritage conservation and management, and consideration for the potential implications of future approaches with regard to heritage management in general. This paper will explore these themes by discussing several specific initiatives that illustrate the impact of partnership at Herculaneum and where progress still needs to be made.
Aylin ORBAŞLI, Arkeolojik Sit Alanlarında Alan Yönetiminin Bölgesel Kalkınmaya Katkısı: Çatalhöyük ve Ani Örnekleri / The Contribution of Site Management at Archaeological Sites to Regional Development:Case Studies of Çatalhöyük and Ani
Abstract: Cultural heritage sites are increasingly being valued for a number of economic benefits they can generate, most obviously through tourism revenues. In Turkey a number of large and well recognised archaeological sites have become very popular tourist destinations, generating substantial revenues for the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and the locality through retail and support services provided. Large visitor numbers, especially at peak times, have also necessitated considered efforts in heritage management, and per the 2005 legislation, management plans have been introduced as essential tools in managing the protection, conservation and visitor needs at major sites. Meanwhile, lesser-known sites, those with less visual impact or which are simply ›out of the way‹ of major tourist routes have suffered from negligence and lack of investment. The manage¬ment planning legislation, however, applies to all cultural heritage sites and provides a unique op-portunity to develop good heritage management practices at all types of sites. A European research project that commenced in 2001 (TEMPER) specifically considered management planning for the often less well-recognised prehistoric sites in the Mediterranean region, with the aim of not only generating a better understanding and appreciation of these sites, but also to consider other ways in which archaeological sites can play a role as drivers of regional economic and social development. This paper considers the ways in which the management planning process at archaeological sites can start to identify and promote means of local and regional economic development beyond the expectations of tourism. These will be illustrated through a recent management plan for Ani and the 2004 management plan for Çatalhöyük, which was one of the TEMPER case studies.
Leo SCHMIDT – Anja MERBACH, World Heritage in Turkey: Questions and Tasks – Göbekli Tepe as a Case Study / Türkiye’deki Dünya Mirası: Sorular ve Görevler – Örnek Çalışma olarak Göbekli Tepe
Abstract: Since April 2011 the site of Göbekli Tepe in southeastern Turkey has been listed on Turkey’s Tentative List for UNESCO World Heritage membership. Because of its exceptional prehistoric significance and compounded by since 1995, the site faces increasing visitor numbers every year, compounded by infrastructure developments undertaken in the surrounding area, and the social and natural context the site resides within, the need for a management plan is increasingly important. A holistic and integrative management system for Göbekli Tepe must reflect this complex situation. This paper will discuss challenges, tasks and questions arising in the management process for Göbekli Tepe and will place the discussion in the context of international standards and requirements in cultural heritage management and World Heritage.
Zeynep ERES, Kırklareli Aşağı Pınar ve Kanlıgeçit Kazılarının 20. Yılında Koruma ve Alan Yönetimi Çalışmaları / Conservation and Site Management Studies in the 20th Year of the Kırklareli Aşağı Pınar and Kanlıgeçit Excavations
Abstract: In countries such as Turkey, which boast various glamorous archaeological sites dat¬ing back to the protohistoric and historic periods, prehistoric settlements are usually ignored in spite of the significance they bear in terms of the history of civilization as these settlements are not visually impressive and tend to turn to ruins fast. Moreover, managing and presenting the prehistoric settlements to society is relatively more difficult when compared to archaeological sites dating back to later periods and featuring ruins of monumental structures. That is why no matter how long the prehistoric period lasted and whether it included some of the important steps of civilization, the prehistoric period is presented to society only through museums. In the last decade society seems to have taken a greater interest in learning more about the prehistoric period through archaeological remains for the first time; this is due in part to the promotion of various settlements such as Çayönü, Çatalhöyük and Göbeklitepe in the media. It is in fact harder to come up with acceptable solutions for prehistoric settlements, when the problems faced by archaeological sites featuring glamorous architectural remains are taken into consideration, as far as the aspects of protection, restoration and presentation to society are concerned. After all many intellectuals, let alone the general public, lack essential knowledge regarding the prehistoric period. People’s level of expectation from a prehistoric settlement is that it will resemble the ru¬ins found on archaeological sites from the ancient period. With the revitalization of interest in archaeological sites from the early period, various methods have been proposed such as reburying the exposed remains, establishing a protective shelter or displaying models. Using basic concepts, the first section of this paper will provide a general overview of the problem. The second section will present the protection and display projects prepared for the two prehistoric excavations cur¬rently underway in the urban site of Kırklareli. Finally the protection policy developed for the medium and long term strategic approach, as well as projects for site management and creating public awareness, which have all been developed to a high level, will be presented.
Jürgen SEEHER – Andreas SCHACHNER, Boğazköy/Hattusa – Fifty Years of Restoration and Site Management / Boğazköy/Hattusa – Restorasyon ve Alan Yönetiminin Elli Yılı
Abstract: Hattusa, the capital of the Hittites in the 2. mill. BC, was situated in the central high¬lands of Anatolia. From 1906 to 1912 large-scale excavations were conducted here under the directorship of the Ottoman Museum at Istanbul, and from 1931 until the present day the excavations are continued on behalf of the German Archaeological Institute.
The architecture of this Bronze Age metropolis consisted to a large extent of mud brick. Stone was mainly used for foundations, and with representative buildings for socle zones with well-dressed blocks. From the 1960ies onward, the restoration and presentation of these stone remains became a major concern for the excavators. Modest repair and rebuilding was employed in order to make the layout of the buildings visible on the surface, a system later adopted by other excavations. The royal palace, 31 temple buildings, large stretches of the fortifications and domestic quarters have been treated in this way, transforming the site into a veritable open air museum. Actual anastylosis had to be restricted to a few structures completely built of stone. Recently, a 1:1 scale reconstruction of a 65 m stretch of the mud brick city wall has been erected and helps visitors to visualize the third dimension of this Bronze Age architecture.
Over the years, site management formed an ever more important part of the project, ranging from the fencing in of a protected 50 m-zone around the site to the rerouting of roads crossing the ancient city, the acquisition and nationalisation of privately owned land within this area, the placement of numerous information panels, the publication of guide books, the opening of a site-museum and a reforestation project in the immediate vicinity. Since 1987, the site is on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Francesco CELLINI – Maria Margarita SEGARRA LAGUNES, Archaeology and Project Planning in the Yenikapı Area – Istanbul / İstanbul-Yenikapı Bölgesinde Arkeoloji ve Proje Planlama
Abstract: The realisation of new subway stations in Yenikapı exposed unexpected and extraordinary evidence of centuries of history, much of which remains to be explored in a vast and still intact segment of the Port of Theodosius. Our competition proposal for the Archaeo-Park and Transfer Point exploits a unique opportunity for dialogue between this ancient site and life in the contemporary city: the elimination of a multi-storey parking structure, inopportunely sited in the infrastructural project, and the design of a new archaeological area will allow the hundreds of thousands of people using the subway each day to view, cross and visit a space that belongs to and represents the history of their city.
The site reveals an ordered succession of layers of the sea bottom and anthropic materials de¬posited over time in the harbour, the reconstruction of sailing ships at the exact level of their discovery, the conservation of pile foundations and stone quays, and the creation of a museum to display a selection of original remains. All to be observed not only by hurried and distracted commuters or tourists, but also carefully examined for scientific and cultural purposes as an integral part of the City Archive, a large and active space for exhibition, conservation and study, hovering above the archaeological site. Comprised of a grouping of complexes for the proposed urban and infrastructural reorganisation of the surrounding urban neighbourhoods, the project also deals with the entire area of the Port of Theodosius. Through a series of delicate works of restoration and conservation this area will be rendered both legible and protected along the perimeter of its ancient walls. The site will be transformed into a public urban park, designed for future archaeological explorations and provided with all the necessary supporting facilities.
Martin BACHMANN, Die Rote Halle als Schlüsselmonument eines Entwicklungsplans für Bergama / Bergama’ya ait Gelişim Planlarında Anahtar Yapı olarak Kızıl Avlu
Abstract: As early as 1970, two years before the signing of the World Heritage Convention, ex¬perts from Yellowstone National Park were invited to participate in the preparation of a protected areas and development plan for Bergama, which was commissioned by the Turkish Ministry of Forestry. The Red Hall, an important feature of the site, was to play a key role in this fully developed master plan. Why this choice has been made and why the potential of the Red Hall for a holistic approach to the development of Bergama has not been used until today is the subject of this paper.
The Red Hall is one of the largest Roman building complexes in the Eastern Mediterranean. Clues indicate that the monument originated as a personal initiative of the Emperor Hadrian to build a place of worship. The area of the main buildings and the enormous courtyard reaches the dimensions of Trajan’s Forum in Rome. In the Early Byzantine period, the main building was converted into a Christian basilica as the Episcopal Church of Pergamon. In modern times, this sacred use was continued with a chapel for the holy martyr Antipas in the northern round tower, which was replaced in the 1950s by the Kurtuluş Camii. Counting the synagogue of the 19th century in close proximity to the Red Hall, there are three world religions united in a spot with nearly 2,000 years of worship tradition and an outstanding importance in religious history.
In the early 20th century archaeological research at the Red Hall began, and the vast dimensions and architectural features of the structure became apparent. This led to conservation efforts in the core area, especially in order to expose the brick construction of extant buildings, and ultimately to its restoration. However, these efforts did not extend to the entire structure, and the Western areas with the courtyard were increasingly blurred in the settlement area of modern Ber¬gama. Thus, the large exedra in the southwest of the Temenos was integrated in the 1980s in the garage of a new bus station, and the granite columns of the western porticoe discovered during construction works were distributed as decorative objects in the urban area. The area east of the Red Hall had been used for barracks since the late Ottoman period, a situation in which the Red Hall with wide open places still presents the outskirts of the city. This situation and the position at the interface between the city’s ancient ruins and the old Ottoman town define the particular planning potential of the Red Hall. This has to be added to its outstanding importance as an archaeological monument. The current restoration project of the German Archaeological Institute was developed to use this potential and to increase the attractiveness of the ruins for visitors. The project steps are designed as building blocks on the road to a comprehensive visitor concept for the World Heritage nominated site.
Klaus NOHLEN, Ausbildung von Handwerkern bei der teilweisen Wiederaufrichtung des Traian-Heiligtums in Pergamon / Bergama Trajan Tapınağı’nın Kısmi Yeniden İnşasında Zanaatkârların Eğitimi
Abstract: At archaeological sites, in addition to excavation training, it is necessarily to incorporate the use of craftsmen along with academics in carrying out restoration projects.
Between 1977–1994, the Istanbul Branch of the German Archaeological Institute, in partial restoration of the sanctuary of the deified emperors Trajan and Hadrian on the acropolis of Pergamon, placed great value in the systematic training of masons. Relying on experts from Switzerland and Germany, masonry instructors were valued not only for their professional skills, but also for their educational qualifications, such as proof of apprenticeship. Talented Turkish employees were chosen and thoroughly trained in related masonry tasks.
Of those workers who took part in the course, many are still working today as specialists in historic preservation techniques on archaeological sites such as Priene, Didyma, Magnesia on the Meander, Nysa and Pergamon itself: a »Pergamum Bauschule«.
Arzu ÖZTÜRK, Restorasyon Uygulamalarının Işığında Aphrodisias’ı Kendi Bağlamında Anlamak / Interpreting Aphrodisias in its own Context from the Aspect of Architectural Restorations
Abstract: Beginning in the 1960s, when the first scientific excavations began, Aphrodisias stood out for its sculptural findings and became one of the best-known historical sites in Turkey. One of the site’s most prominent and unique features is its ruins. In ancient Aphrodisias the first extensive building activities took place in the Early Imperial Period (4th quarter of the 1st century BC – 1st half of the 1st century AD) and continued in the High Imperial Period (2nd century AD); the most remarkable era in terms of the city’s history, however, is the Late Antiquity. Most of the monumental buildings which reflect these important periods of the city have been well-preserved into the present. The most important factor in this conservation has been the site’s isolated location within a plateau in the Inner Aegean Region. Beginning in ancient time, Aphrodisias has always been isolated, which had the advantage of protecting the site, but also put it at an economic disadvantage in relation to neighboring sites. Considering the 20 years of architectural restora¬tion activities in Aphrodisias in a multidimensional way, this contradictory case can also be seen in the consequences of the restoration activities. In the ancient city, comprehensive anastylosis practices have been carried out, and a local museum has been established for the protection of the historical artifacts. In considering protection and restoration practices, the effects of these prac¬tices on the economic and social life of the neighboring communities should also be examined. In this regard we will discuss:
1. Briefly introducing the protection and restoration practices in Aphrodisias,
2. Implementing the protection and restoration methods specific to Aphrodisias,
3. Introducing local labour used in protection and restoration practices in its own local dynamics, and
4. Mutual interaction between Aphrodisias and nearby modern sites within the framework of protection and restoration practices
While addressing how these restoration practices have been handled in Aphrodisias over the past 20 years within this analytical framework, the subject will be scrutinized within the city’s own circumstances and evaluated within the framework of the congress’ main theme.
Neil KOROSTOFF, Weeds in the Ruins: The Role of Natural Vegetation in the Interpretation and Preservation of Archaeological Sites / Harabelerdeki Otlar: Arkeolojik Yerleşmelerin Yorumlanması ve Korunmasında Doğal Bitki Örtüsünün Rolü
Abstract: Management of archaeological sites includes the treatment of natural vegetation that can contribute to the interpretation and preservation of archaeological materials. Three contrasting sites in the Republic of Turkey: Ephesus, Termessos National Park, and Afrodisias are compared for the condition and contributions of natural vegetation to the experience and interpretation of each site.
Moritz TASCHNER, Milet – Konservierung, Tourismus und Umweltbedingungen / Milet – Koruma, Turizm ve Çevre Koşulları
Abstract: Excavations at Miletos have a long-standing tradition that reaches back to the l9th cen¬tury. From the beginning, the excavations at Miletos have helped to raise basic scientific and methodological questions in archaeology; considering issues of cultural heritage preservation, Miletos today is still confronted with great challenges. In addition to the vast extent of the excavation site itself, regular flooding presents a severe threat to the protection of the site’s ruins and its tourist development. In order to prevent further damage, the German Archaeological Institute initiated a campaign in autumn 2012. As a first step, symptoms, causes and effects of the flooding have been analyzed. Although the proceedings cannot yet provide final answers, they allow for a systematic analysis that may be helpful in developing prevention tools for archaeological sites facing similar problems.
Miletos is flooded annually in late autumn with some ruins being swamped until the summer of the following year. During these months, the site’s centre cannot be accessed, and minor building components are not visible. Micro-organisms that occur in stagnant water with increasing temperatures provide a further problem as they form firm crusts on marble and other stones, permanently coating these surfaces. In addition to these potential damaging factors, various other negative effects of the flooding will be discussed in my paper. In particular, I will suggest solutions that are the result of changing basic conditions at the site.
Cengiz KABAOĞLU, Milet İlyas Bey Külliyesi Projesi / The Miletos Ilyas Bey Complex Project
Abstract: The conservation of the Miletos Ilyas Bey Complex is an exemplary project which aimed to strengthen the relationship between the complex (comprising historical buildings and their pastoral surroundings) and its physical and social environment. The historical buildings of varying functions, which have survived for centuries in different stages of preservation at this multi-layered cultural heritage site, consist of a mosque, an adjacent madrasa (school of higher education), a double hamam (bath) with separate sections for men and women and several other structures. The region where the complex is located is Miletos, the large and prosperous port city of antiquity, presently known as Balat (Aydın, Turkey). The paramount aim of the project was to conserve the complex as a cultural heritage site by ensuring the holistic presentation and promotion of its natural and cultural aspects, in addition to fostering an understanding of its various values. The project protected and encouraged the current traditional use of the complex, creating an opportunity to re-use the site as a museum park where the multi-layered cultural heritage and traditions of the region can be presented. The Miletos Ilyas Bey Complex Project, which assured the conservation of both tangible (the monuments and the project site) and intangible (the connection of the locals to the site) aspects of cultural heritage, was granted the EU Prize for Cultural Heritage/Europa Nostra Awards in 2012.
Neriman ŞAHİN GÜÇHAN, Conservation of Relationship between »Place« and »Context« Commagene Nemrut Conservation Development Programme / »Yer« ile »Bağlam« arasındaki İlişkinin Korunması Kommagene Nemrut Koruma Geliştirme Programı
Abstract: This paper aims to define the material entity value and contextual meaning of the Mount Nemrut Tumulus (MNT) in the Commagenian Kingdom Period, with particular focus on their conservation. The paper begins by defining the material and immaterial features of the MNT; the second part then introduces the Commagene Nemrut Conservation Develop¬ment Programme; and the third part discusses the conceptual framework of a holistic ap¬proach to the conservation of MNT with a presentation of the complementary tracks defined in the scope of the Conservation Management Plan. Finally, the fourth part introduces the vision of the Commagene Nemrut Conservation Management Plan derived from the dialectic relations between the place and context of the Nemrut Tumulus.
Diane SIEBRANDT, Saving Iraq’s Past: Project Support from the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad / Irak’ın Geçmişini Kurtarmak: A.B.D. Bağdat Büyükelçiliği’nin Proje Desteği
Abstract: There are many challenges involved with protecting cultural heritage sites, but the added complications associated with events such as war, reconciliation, fluctuating security situations, and social changes require special attention, as in the case of Iraq. Since 2003, the US Embassy in Baghdad has worked with Iraqi antiquities authorities on a wide range of preservation projects throughout the country. Embassy personnel recognized the need to not only support tangible preservation projects, but more importantly, to provide state-of-the-art training opportunities to help shape a new and upcoming class of cultural heritage specialists in Iraq. The embassy has provided the means to enable cultural heritage specialists from across Iraq to engage in long term preservation projects that will ultimately benefit an international audience. From rehabilitating a large portion of the Iraq Museum, and supporting the Future of Babylon Project, to establishing the Iraqi Institute for the Conservation of Antiquities and Heritage, I will discuss how each of these embassy sponsored projects is bringing Iraqi specialist’s one stop closer to pre¬serving their rich cultural history.
Alessandra RICCI, Interpreting Heritage: Byzantine-Period Archaeological Areas and Parks in Istanbul / Mirası Yorumlamak: İstanbul’daki Bizans Dönemi’ne Ait Arkeolojik Alanlar ve Parklar
Abstract: Istanbul’s urban transition into the 20th century was marked by a Master Plan for the historic peninsula, site of the main thrust of the city’s Byzantine- and Ottoman-period heritage. The French architect and urbanist Henri Prost was asked to prepare the Plan, which was approved in 1939 and aimed at revitalizing the city through a distinctive modernist vocabulary. Within the Plan, two extended Archaeological Parks, one along the Byzantine-period Land Walls and a second in the Sultanahmet Camii area, stand out as an attempt to incorporate the city’s heritage within the projected modernist urban transformation. These vast spaces maintained a central role in the city’s urban discourse during the decades following approval of Prost’s Master Plan, with revolving outcomes that epitomize the alternating fortunes of Byzantine-period archaeological heritage in the city of Istanbul.
Prost was also responsible for crafting a Master Plan for the Asian side of the city, which made some provisions for expected urban growth east across the Bosphorus, but did not take into account heritage or archaeology. The middle Byzantine remains at Küçükyalı, located well beyond the boundaries of Prost’s Plan, currently represent one of the largest surviving archaeological areas on the Asian side of the city. Ongoing experience and negotiation of heritage representation at the site of Küçükyalı exemplify one current approach towards Byzantine heritage in the contemporary city of Istanbul.
When taken together, these study cases, Prost’s plan and Küçükyalı prompt reflection on the city’s public urban policies with regard to archaeological areas in general and, more specifically, to the representation of its Byzantine heritage.
Duygu GÖÇMEN – Seçil TEZER, Alan Yönetim Planı Hazırlığında bir Altyapı Aracı olarak »DAI – MODUL« / DAI – MODUL as an Infrastructural Tool in the Preparation of Site Management Plans
Abstract: »Site management« is being developed as an answer to questions regarding cultural properties and sites, in preserving, in handling financial organization, in participating as institutions in the process. On this basis, the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) aims to make a sustainable contribution to this process, which has been newly gaining recognition by wider audiences in Turkey, by directly becoming involved in the preparation of site management plans for the sites it is carrying on excavation, research and conservation practices. For this purpose DAI-MODUL targets to play an important role not only in storing the information produced but also in making such information available for simultaneous access and sharing.
Siedeln und Wohnen in einer Ruinenstätte. Ein denkmalpflegerisches Konzept für Herakleia am Latmos / Yerleşim ve Yaşam Alanı olarak Ören YeriHerakleia (Latmos) için bir Koruma Konsepti
XXIV + 174 Seiten, Farbabbildungen, zweisprachig Deutsch und Türkisch
Zum Geleit (Martin Bachmann – Felix Pirson)
Vorwort (von Anneliese Peschlow-Bindokat)
Danksagung (Albert Distelrath)
Siedeln und Wohnen in einer Ruinenstätte – Forschungsstand und Fragestellung
Siedlungsgeschichte Herakleia/Kapıkırı – Bestandsaufnahme und Analyse
Lage und Geschichte von Herakleia
Die Bauten von Herakleia und ihre Gefährdung
Der Tempel der Athena Latmia
Das Heiligtum des Endymion
Römische und byzantinische Bebauung
Die Entwicklung des türkischen Dorfes Kapıkırı
Die Dorfentwicklung bis 1960
Die Dorfentwicklung nach 1960
Kapıkırı heute und Prognosen für die Zukunft
Einflüsse spatosmanisch/türkischer Siedlungs- und Bautraditionen auf Lebens-
und Hausformen in Kapıkırı
Von nomadischer Lebensform zur Siedlung – Die Entstehung von Dörfern im Latmos
Merkmale osmanisch/türkischer Wohnhausarchitektur bezogen auf die
Architektur in Kapıkırı
Dörfer und Siedlungsstrukturen im Latmos
Das Dorf Çomakdağ
Ein Tal im sudostlichen Latmos: Kandak, Çukur, Böğürtlenambarı und Kayabükü
Das Nachbardorf von Kapıkırı: Gölyaka
Einflüsse auf die Dorfentwicklung und Architektur von Kapıkırı
Nutzungsverträglichkeit und Nutzungsgrenzen der Dorfentwicklung von Kapıkırı –
Ein denkmalpflegerisches Konzept für Herakleia
Bisherige Schutzkonzepte und gesetzliche Regelungen fur Herakleia
Bewertung der Denkmalsubstanz und Definition von Schutzanforderungen
Gestaltungsempfehlungen fur die Alt- und Neubauten in Kapıkırı
Flächennutzungsplan Herakleia und Latmos – Tendenzen für eine neue
Dorfentwicklung von Kapıkırı
Zusammenfassung und Ausblick